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Flashcards in Synapses Deck (58)
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1

Contains protein molecules that transmit chemical messages

Presynaptic membrane

2

What NTs are commonly reuptaken by astrocytes and why?

Glutamate and GABA because they are very excitatory and inhibitory (respectively)

3

Not typical at axon terminals. Synapses are not usually this type

Electrical synapse "gap junction"

4

A method of NT deactivation that requires certain molecules to find and break down specific NTs

Breakdown by enzymes

5

This postsynaptic receptor opens channels directly, provides immediate rxns required for muscle activity and sensory processing, has a fast activation, has a brief duration and is the classic model of ligand-gated receptors

Ionotropic receptors

6

What method of NT inactivation did the first attempts to prevent depression use

Breakdown of enzymes. MAOs

7

Type of synapse in which the axon terminal secretes directly into the bloodstream

Axosecretory

8

What are the 4 ways of inactivating a NT?

Diffusion, breakdown by enzyme, uptake into glial cells, reuptake into presynaptic terminal via transporter

9

NT is released toward a single postsynaptic neuron in this type of synapse

Directed synapse

10

What is it called when a different neuron is involved with facilitation or inhibition of another neuron presynaptically? It is affecting another neurons decision

Neuromodulation

11

Small space separating presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic dendritic spine

Synaptic cleft

12

Type of synapse in which an axon terminal ends on soma

Axosomatic

13

How can blocking and supercharging reuptake receptors have an effect on us?

They can have many different medical applications

14

These are activated by a NT (first messenger)

g-proteins

15

How are NTs stored

Vesicles which are membrane-bound organelles in the axon terminal

16

Direct AP propagation, nearly instantaneous, only excitatory

Electrical synapse "gap junction"

17

Site to which a NT molecule bonds

Postsynaptic receptor

18

What are the six steps for triggered release of a NT

1.) Arrival of AP at axon terminal
2.) VG Ca channels open; calcium enters and SNARE proteins activate
3.) Vesicles move to and dock on presynaptic membrane
4.) Vesicles fuse with presynaptic membrane and release NT into synaptic cleft (exocytosis)
5.) NT binds with receptors on pre or postsynaptic membrane
6.) NT is inactivated or removed from synaptic cleft

19

What are the two types of pre-synaptic receptors?

Heteroreceptors and autoreceptors

20

When a vesicle fuses with the presynaptic membrane and releases NTs into the synaptic cleft

Exocytosis

21

The gap is small at around 20 nm. The junction where neurotransmitters are releases

Chemical synapse

22

Bi-directional. Message can travel both ways

Electrical synapse "gap junction"

23

Typical at axon terminals. This is the most common synapse we see

Chemical synapse

24

These postsynaptic receptors open channels indirectly, are versatile, use second messengers (g-proteins), have a slow activation, and have a long lasting duration of effects

Metabotropic receptors

25

The gap is very small at about 3.5 nm. The presynaptic and postsynaptic membrane are fused at the connexon. Shared cytoplasm

Electrical synapse "gap junction"

26

Type of synapse that is inhibitory, typically located on cell body, flat vesicles, sparse material on membranes, narrow cleft, and small active zone

Type II synapse

27

What are the four requirements to be a NT

Synthesis in cell, triggered release (AP), effect on receptors (a biological effect), and a mechanism for inactivation

28

Large compartment that holds synaptic vesicles

Storage granule

29

Organelle that provides the cell with energy

Mitochondrion

30

How is a NT synthesized in the axon terminal

Ingredients from food pumped into cell via transporters