Flashcards in Language Deck (88)
What happens in Broca's aphasia?
Impaired speech production and writing deficits. Difficulty retrieving correct words for ideas they wish to express (anomia)
Loss of all language functions
What do mice with human FOXP2 genes exhibit that is significant?
Enhanced ability to make transitions from a declarative to a procedural mode of learning
What happens in transcortical sensory aphasia?
Fluent speech with impaired cognition. Deficits in word meanings
Inability to write
What is observed in the brains of people who stutter?
Abnormal lateralization of speech areas and high activity in the basal ganglia
What is perseveration?
Pathological repetition of the same response for different questions
Speech remains fluent and comprehension is fairly good. Difficulty repeating speech
What region of the brain shows increased gray matter density in bilinguals compared to monolinguals?
Left inferior parietal region
What happens in dyslexia?
Difficulty learning to read (affects 10-30% of population), poor phonological awareness, over-activation of rostral language areas, and lack of activation of posterior language areas
What brain arteries are involved in language?
Anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery
What usually causes stuttering?
What types of fonts are hard for dyslexic people to read?
Digital fonts like the ones on scoreboards and times new roman
What could the FOXP2 gene be important in?
Health of the basal ganglia
What are neologisms? Where are they often seen?
Made up words and words meshed together. Often in people with Wernickes aphasia
What aphasia impacts life the least?
What does American sign language combine?
Language (left hemisphere) and spatial processing (right hemisphere)
What is prosody?
The musical quality of language. Like elevating pitch in the last word to indicate a question
What areas of the brain was significantly impacted in developmental verbal apraxia?
Caudate nucleus and putamen of basal ganglia
How is recovery from an aphasia determined?
If what caused it is resolved and age. Younger people recover easier due to plasticity. Most recovery occurs in the first year after it happens
When does the planum temporale show more symmetry than normal?
Dyslexia and perfect pitch
What can be seen in dyslexic brains compared to normal brains?
Less extensive connectivity in left hemisphere, more symmetry, and many more pathways in the right hemisphere
What is still in tact in Broca's aphasia?
Comprehension and singing
Four structures of a language
Sentence, phrases, words or morphemes (meanings), and phonemes (sounds)
Language symptoms of schizophrenia
Neologisms, word salad, perseveration, clang associations, and echolalia
What happens in Wernickes aphasia?
Comprehension for both spoken and written word impaired. Speech is rapid and fluent but meaningless. Seem unaware they make no sense. Neologisms common
What are neologisms?
Creating/contracting new words for complex ideas
What do cells in the planum temporale show in dyslexia?
A lack of normal layering and arrangement of columns. They may have migrated into superficial layers
What happens in transcortical aphasia?
Speech is not fluent but words can be repeated. Affects higher cognitive aspects of speech production (generation verbs to match nouns)