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Flashcards in Language Deck (88)
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1

What happens in Broca's aphasia?

Impaired speech production and writing deficits. Difficulty retrieving correct words for ideas they wish to express (anomia)

2

Loss of all language functions

Global aphasia

3

What do mice with human FOXP2 genes exhibit that is significant?

Enhanced ability to make transitions from a declarative to a procedural mode of learning

4

What happens in transcortical sensory aphasia?

Fluent speech with impaired cognition. Deficits in word meanings

5

Inability to write

Agraphia

6

What is observed in the brains of people who stutter?

Abnormal lateralization of speech areas and high activity in the basal ganglia

7

What is perseveration?

Pathological repetition of the same response for different questions

8

Speech remains fluent and comprehension is fairly good. Difficulty repeating speech

Conduction aphasia

9

What region of the brain shows increased gray matter density in bilinguals compared to monolinguals?

Left inferior parietal region

10

What happens in dyslexia?

Difficulty learning to read (affects 10-30% of population), poor phonological awareness, over-activation of rostral language areas, and lack of activation of posterior language areas

11

What brain arteries are involved in language?

Anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery

12

What usually causes stuttering?

Genetics

13

What types of fonts are hard for dyslexic people to read?

Digital fonts like the ones on scoreboards and times new roman

14

What could the FOXP2 gene be important in?

Health of the basal ganglia

15

What are neologisms? Where are they often seen?

Made up words and words meshed together. Often in people with Wernickes aphasia

16

What aphasia impacts life the least?

Conduction aphasia

17

What does American sign language combine?

Language (left hemisphere) and spatial processing (right hemisphere)

18

What is prosody?

The musical quality of language. Like elevating pitch in the last word to indicate a question

19

What areas of the brain was significantly impacted in developmental verbal apraxia?

Caudate nucleus and putamen of basal ganglia

20

How is recovery from an aphasia determined?

If what caused it is resolved and age. Younger people recover easier due to plasticity. Most recovery occurs in the first year after it happens

21

When does the planum temporale show more symmetry than normal?

Dyslexia and perfect pitch

22

What can be seen in dyslexic brains compared to normal brains?

Less extensive connectivity in left hemisphere, more symmetry, and many more pathways in the right hemisphere

23

What is still in tact in Broca's aphasia?

Comprehension and singing

24

Four structures of a language

Sentence, phrases, words or morphemes (meanings), and phonemes (sounds)

25

Language symptoms of schizophrenia

Neologisms, word salad, perseveration, clang associations, and echolalia

26

What happens in Wernickes aphasia?

Comprehension for both spoken and written word impaired. Speech is rapid and fluent but meaningless. Seem unaware they make no sense. Neologisms common

27

What are neologisms?

Creating/contracting new words for complex ideas

28

What do cells in the planum temporale show in dyslexia?

A lack of normal layering and arrangement of columns. They may have migrated into superficial layers

29

What happens in transcortical aphasia?

Speech is not fluent but words can be repeated. Affects higher cognitive aspects of speech production (generation verbs to match nouns)

30

What did the KE family have and what is it associated with?

FOXP2 mutation causing developmental verbal apraxia

31

What language can be taught to a baby to benefit it?

Sign language

32

What does the right hemisphere play a role in?

Prosody (musical quality fo language. Elevating pitch in last word indicated a question)

33

What happens to infants by 11 months?

They can only distinguish sounds in native language at home

34

Koko the gorilla and language example

Koko learned sign language but wasn't always reliable. More operant conditioning than language

35

What is the dorsal pathway?

Conversion of sound to movement and speech. Dual stream language model part

36

What happens when the FOXP2 gene is knocked out in a knock out study?

Limited lifespan, developmental delays, fewer ultrasonic vocalizations, altered basal ganglia

37

What is developmental verbal apraxia and what are symptoms of it?

A disability that causes trouble in speech due to a FOXP2 mutation. Symptoms: rigidity of lower half of face, can't complete pronouncing a word, significant difficulty with consonants, stuttering, limited vocabulary, impairments in reading, writing, and verbal IQ

38

What is the Wernicke-Geschwind model of language?

Broca's area is responsible for speech and Wernicke's area is responsible for comprehension. Most known and accepted

39

When did language supposedly develop?

When tool use was developing

40

What can infants distinguish at 8 months?

All speech sounds. All sounds from all languages

41

Where are Broca's and Wernickes area more commonly found?

Left hemisphere

42

What area does not show typical hemispheric asymmetry in dyslexia?

Planum temporale. It is more symmetric in dyslexia

43

What is asymmetry related to?

Dyslexia

44

Treatments for stuttering

Reducing rates at which speech is produced and stress associated with the disorder and reducing stress in general

45

What are the two pathways in the dual stream language model

Ventral pathway and dorsal pathway

46

What is anomia?

Difficulty retrieving correct words for ideas they wish to express

47

Fluency, comprehension, and repetition in the aphasias

Brocas: no, yes, no
Wernickes: yes, no, no
Conduction: yes, yes, no
Transcortical motor: no, yes, yes
Transcortical sensory: yes, no, yes
Transcortical mixed: no, no, yes
Global: no, no, no

48

What did patient tan have?

A giant hole in Broca's area

49

What happens when the human FOXP2 gene is knocked in in a knock in study?

Generally healthy, different ultrasonic vocalizations (frequencies or times), less exploratory behavior, less dopamine, increased dendrite length and synaptic plasticity in basal ganglia (ripe for learning procedural motor actions)

50

Speech is rapid and fluent but meaningless

Wernickes aphasia

51

Why aren't reading and writing disorders typically diagnosed in young kids?

It takes time to develop reading and writing skills

52

What is transcortical motor aphasia a less severe version of?

Brocas aphasia

53

What are the visual symptoms of dyslexia?

Visual-perceptual difficulties (reading words backwards)
Confusing mirror image letters
Trouble fixating on printed words
Words appear to move around the page

54

Where is Wernickes area? What does it do?

Located just below left superior temporal gyrus. Comprehension

55

What are the three interacting language components and what do they show?

Language implementation, meditational system, and conceptual system. Shows it is hard to point to parts of the brain in language

56

Differences between language and communication

Language includes syntax and generativity. Humans can produce novel sentences but animals can't

57

What is echolalia?

Repeating of words or phrases of one person by another

58

The path connecting Broca's and Wernickes area. Other pathways like it likely exist

Arcuate fasciculus

59

What are clang associations?

Using words similar in sound, but not in meaning. Excessive rhyming

60

Difference in human and animal FOXP2 genes

Found in different forms in different species

61

Serious speech deficit that renders a person unable to communicate effectively; caused by damage to the brain. Problems with speaking, fluency, and comprehension

Aphasia

62

What area has over-activation in dyslexia?

Rostral language areas

63

What gene is related to language and when did it supposedly show mutations?

FOXP2. 100,000 years ago around tool use

64

What is the heritability of dyslexia?

40%

65

What are primary causes for aphasias?

Strokes

66

Fluent, grammatical speech, but comprehension is impaired. Impact certain parts of speech like nouns, verbs, etc.

Transcortical aphasias

67

What does the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex do in language?

Acts as a switch between languages based on context. Dreaming in another language shows increased activity here

68

What area has a lack of activation in dyslexia?

Posterior language areas

69

What is observed in the brains of multilingual people?

More overlapping activity, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex acting as a language switch, and executive attentional processing by the inferior parietal lobe

70

Lack of ability to speak clearly

Brocas aphasia

71

Where are language production and comprehension almost always located?

Left hemisphere

72

What are some positive outcomes of bilingualism?

Children perform better on tests of executive control (waiting for 2 marshmallows instead of taking 1) and it is associated with a delay in the onset of age related dementia

73

What is word salad?

Unintelligible mixture of words and phrases

74

At what age is a language retained better if it is learned at that age?

A young age. The younger the better

75

What happens in a dyslexic brain while reading aloud?

Less activation of the angular gyrus and Wernickes area and increased activation of Broca's area

76

Difficulty learning to read

Dyslexia

77

Problems with the Wernicke-Geschwind model of language

Too simplistic

78

What do sign language users process differently from non sign language users?

Movement

79

What happens in conduction aphasia?

Damage to Arcuate fasciculus causes difficulties with repetition of sentences. Impacts life the least

80

What can the right hemisphere do if the left hemisphere experiences damage early in life?

Take over the language functions

81

What brain structure covers most language areas and a stroke there would be almost certainly fatal?

Middle cerebral artery

82

Sign language compared to a spoken language

Brain imaging shows same patterns of activation. Contains all aspects of spoken language

83

Awareness of people with Broca's and Wernickes aphasia

In Brocas, they know something is wrong. In Wernickes, they seem unaware they make no sense

84

What is phonological awareness?

Linking specific sounds to meanings

85

Normal speech and comprehension, but unable to read or recognize letters

Alexia

86

What were supposedly the first types of languages?

Click languages

87

Where is Broca's area? What does it do?

Left inferior frontal gyrus. Motor speech

88

What is the ventral pathway?

Conversion of sound to meaning. Dual stream language model part