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Flashcards in Hormones and Sexual Behavior Deck (141)
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1

When is there more sexual interest in women

Around ovulation

2

What does 5-alpha reductase do?

Converts testosterone to 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone

3

What activates sexual behavior in women?

Maybe testosterone but no other species exhibits that. Need more research on ovarian hormones (estrogen)

4

Characteristics of kleinfelter syndrome

Tall stature, some female secondary sex characteristics such as wide hips and breast growth. Show signs of a female puberty

5

When are females more accurately able to guess male sexual orientation?

Close to ovulation

6

How do hormones and sex differences play a role in health?

Many psychological disorders affect males and females at different rates

7

When does puberty really start?

When gonadotropins are first released in large amounts

8

Turner Syndrome

Sex monosomie. 45 X0

9

Stable pattern of attraction to members of a particular sex that isn't the same as sexual behavior or fantasy and isn't purely dichotomous

Sexual orientation

10

What does insulin do and where is it produced?

Blood glucose produced in pancreas

11

What do estrogens do and where are they produced

Breast development and menarche in females produced in ovaries and testes and adrenal glands

12

Blood levels of LH and FSH pituitary hormones during human menstrual cycle

Higher LH than FSH

13

What do OAEs presumably indicate?

The influence of prenatal testosterone levels

14

Three steps of puberty

1.) Hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to pituitary glad
2.) Pituitary gland releases gonadotropins
3.) Secretion of sex hormones from the glands

15

Gonads in AIS and 5ARD

Neither in AIS and undescended testes in 5ARD

16

What happens at puberty

Sexual maturation and the development of secondary sex characteristics

17

Premenstrual mood changes are usually severe affecting cognition and daily life

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

18

New mothers experience feelings of depression due to rapidly changing hormonal environment

Postpartum depression (and anxiety and psychosis)

19

What does progesterone do and where is it produced

Preparation of uterus for implantation of fertilized egg produced in ovaries and testes and adrenal glands

20

What causes androgen insensitivity syndrome?

Abnormal androgen receptors disrupt normal development of the Wolffian system, though testosterone and anti-mullerian hormone are released in normal manner. Non-functional androgen receptors

21

What do testosterone levels correlate with?

Activation during spatial tasks

22

Female sexual interest stability

Not as stable as men

23

What do all sex hormones come from?

Cholesterol

24

What do androgens do and where are they produced

male secondary sex characteristics, sexual arousal in males and females and produced in testes as well as ovaries and adrenal glands

25

Phenotype of turner syndrome

Female

26

What does every fetus have at 6 weeks?

Both a wollfian and mullerian duct

27

A type of hormone that causes a defeminizing effect that prevents the mullerian system from developing

Anti-mullerian hormone

28

External genitalia of turner syndrome

typical

29

Females preferences of males for casual sexual encounters and long term partners

Masculine men for casual and less masculine men for long term

30

What do estradiol levels correlate with?

Activation in language centers

31

Creates the testis determining factor protein

SRY gene

32

Kleinfelter syndrome

Sex polysomie. 47 XXY

33

What do cortisol, NE, epinephrine (adrenaline) do and where are they produced

Bodily functions during stressful and emotional states produced in adrenal glands

34

Birth order effects on sexual orientation?

Males with older brothers are more likely to be homosexual due to the mothers immune response to Y chromosome proteins strengthening with subsequent pregnancies

35

Male gonads

Testes

36

When do testosterone levels increase in males?

Anticipation of competition and further increases in winners. Losers lose testosterone

37

Addresses the question what hormones to make?

Organizational hormone effects

38

What happens without the SRY gene?

It is default which is female. The gonads become ovaries

39

Long-term, irreversible effects that are associated with critical or sensitive periods. Hormones

Organizational hormone effects

40

Effects of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in females

Exposed to excessive androgen; born with ambiguous external genitalia

41

When does differentiation of gonads occur?

During the third month

42

Characteristics of XYY

Increased risk for acne and learning disabilities. Minor risk factors for impulsive, antisocial, and primal misbehavior. MAYBE a harder time with impulse control

43

Higher testosterone and lower estrogen and vice versa relationship to hand development?

Higher testosterone = 4D bigger than 2D. Male pattern
Higher estrogen = 2D bigger or equal to 4D. Female pattern

44

What activates sexual behavior in men?

Testosterone

45

External female genitalia

Labia, clitoris and outer vagina

46

Short-term, reversible effects that occur around puberty and sexual maturity. Hormones

Activational hormone effects

47

Sex polysomies

Three sex chromosomes. 47 XXX, 47 XXY - Klinefelter syndrome
47 XYY - Supermale

48

Chromosomes in AIS and 5ARD

XY for both

49

Areas of decreased activity viewing someone you love

Prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus

50

Genitalia at birth in AIS and 5ARD

Female for both

51

Intelligence of turner syndrome

Normal. Typically have high educational and occupational achievement levels

52

When is oxytocin secreted and what does it do?

Secreted during child birth and female and male orgasms. It promotes pair bonding

53

Biological characteristic of being male or female

Sex

54

This often requires testosterone treatment at puberty for masculine traits

Kleinfelter syndrome

55

What happens when there is no SRY gene?

It will be a female

56

What features are preferred on females by most males?

Younger features

57

How do preferences for masculinity vary in females?

Based on fertility cycle and presence of hormonal contraception

58

When do children begin to prefer sex-typed toys?

Between 12 and 18 months

59

Do males or females express more vasopressin?

Males

60

External male genitalia

Scrotum and testes

61

What are androgens?

Type of steroid hormone that develops and maintains typically masculine characteristics or sexual interest

62

Homosexual males outperformed heterosexual females on these and homosexual males and heterosexual females outperformed heterosexual males and homosexual females

Verbal fluency tasks

63

Male and female sexual behaviors exhibited in rats?

Mounting and lordosis

64

What are oxytocin and vasopressin

Neuropeptides. Neurohormones

65

External genitalia of kleinfelter syndrome

Small penis and testes

66

Genetic males but phenotypic females with usually female gender identities

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

67

What are androgens a precursor for?

Estrogen

68

Female gonads

Ovaries

69

Develops into uterus, upper vagina, and fallopian tubes

Mullerian system. Female

70

What does early exposure to sex hormones influence?

Adult sexual behavior in animals and humans

71

What may genetics have effects on?

Direct effects on sexual orientation or indirect effects on prenatal androgen environments

72

What do all embryos have?

Precursors to both male and female internal organs

73

Phenotype of kleinfelter syndrome

Male but lots of feminization of features

74

Gonads of turner syndrome

Streak ovaries. So much connective tissue it prevents them from being functional. No ova or ovarian hormones. Infertile

75

What does melatonin do and where is it produced?

Biological rhythms and sleep produced in pineal gland

76

Sex monosomies

Only one sex chromosome. 45 X0 - Turner syndrome
45 Y0 - no record, you need an x to be alive

77

Gonads of kleinfelter syndrome

Underdeveloped testes. Have a low fertility rate

78

What do males have a slight advantage in and what do females have a slight advantage in?

Males = visuospatial tasks
Females = verbal tasks

79

Causes the primordial gonads to develop into testes

testis determining factor protein

80

Males always outperform females on these and heterosexual males outperform homosexual males, bisexual males fall in between

Visuospatial tasks

81

Do males or females express more oxytocin?

Females

82

A type of hormone and androgen that causes masculinizing effect that promotes development of Wolffian system

testosterone

83

Possible biomarkers of sexual orientation

Otoacoustic emissions of lesbian and bisexual women. 2D:4D ration

84

What are sex differences mediated by?

continued expression of genes on both X and Y chromosomes, especially in the Brian, organizational and activation hormone effects, epigenetics, and societal and cultural influences

85

Jacob syndrome ("supermale")

Sex polysomie. 47 XYY

86

Females produce louder these than males

click evoked OAEs (CEOAEs)

87

How does the Mullerian system develop?

It develops in the absence of male hormones

88

Where are androgens found?

Both male and females

89

Where are there a large number of androgen and estrogen receptors?

Digits 2 and 4. More on 4

90

Why are testes gonads?

They start inside and become external

91

What is vasopressin and what does it do?

Neurohormone involved in social behavior, sexual behavior and pair bonding

92

Proteins made and sex chromosome abnormalities

Less chromosomes = less proteins made
More chromosomes = more proteins made

93

What hormonal activity is required for external female genitalia development?

None

94

Genotype and phenotype of XYY

Male for both

95

Areas of increased activity viewing someone you love

Insula, basal ganglia, anterior cingulate cortex

96

What do males and females both produce?

Androgens and estrogens but in different amounts

97

What motor skills do males and females develop?

Gross motor skills in males and fine motor skills in females

98

How are sex differences activated in the brain?

Continuous testosterone production in males at puberty and estrus cycle in females at puberty

99

Are ovaries active during fetal development?

No. The absence of active testes causes the development of the mullerian system

100

What is oxytocin and what does it do?

Neurohormone that promotes pair bonding

101

What does testosterone stimulate in males that are the secondary sex characteristics?

Muscular development, maturation of external genitalia, facial and body hair (hairline on the head and baldness), enlargement of larynx (deeper voice)

102

Genetics role in sexual orientation

Influence it although we don't understand the exact mechanisms. More than genetics is at play. Regions on chromosome 8 and the X chromosome predict sexual orientation

103

Fertility in XYY

Maybe slightly reduced and a higher chance for male offspring

104

Addresses the question what do the hormones do?

Activational hormone effects

105

What are two gonadotropins?

Leutinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

106

Indirect markers/correlates of prenatal androgen exposure

Length of fingers (2D:4D), otoacoustic emissions, birth order (5th boy has more prenatal exposure)

107

When can the sex be determined externally?

Around 18 weeks

108

Fertility in AIS and 5ARD

Infertile in AIS and normal in 5ARD

109

Adrenal glands release elevated levels of androgens

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

110

What are the sexually dimorphic brain structures?

Sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) (rats), interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH), spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus, thalamus, and white matter of the cerebral hemisphere

111

What happens in 5ARD deficiency (5ARD)?

At puberty, unconverted testosterone produces male secondary sex characteristics. Raised as females and have a male puberty

112

Effect of a hormone that occurs in the fully developed organism, beginning at time of puberty

Activational hormone effects

113

When is genetic sex determined?

The time of fertilization

114

Importance of symmetry in attraction

More symmetrical faces are more attractive

115

How many variables determine sex?

Many. Chromosomes, hormone balances, and phenotypic variants of physical characteristics

116

Most well known androgen

Testosterone

117

Blood levels of ovarian hormones during human menstrual cycle

High estrogens and low progesterone then they flip

118

What hormonal activity is required for external male genitalia development?

5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone is converted from testosterone by 5-alpha-reductase. Needs to happen for external genitalia development in males. Loss results in ambiguous external genitalia

119

Hormonal effects on the differentiation and development of the sex organs, brain and behavior in early development

Organizational hormone effects

120

When are testosterone levels in males lowered?

Older men, long-term relationships, following the birth of a baby (return in 3-6 months)

121

Intelligence of kleinfelter syndrome

Mild cognitive difficulties and social awkwardness

122

What does estradiol stimulate in females that are the secondary sex characteristics?

Breast growth, maturation of external genitalia and uterus, changes in deposition of body fat, menstrual cycle

123

During the third month, what causes the male gonads to develop?

Male testes (via SRY gene) secrete testosterone and anti-mullerian hormone

124

Internal sex organs

gonads

125

Sexual development in XXY

Normal

126

What kind of immune system is preferred in a partner?

One different from our own

127

Genitalia at puberty for AIS and 5ARD

Female for AIS and masculine for 5ARD

128

Male and female sex chromosomes

XX for female and XY for male

129

What is the sex determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene and what does it do?

Determines if the gonads will be male or female.

130

How is sex determined?

If the sperm carries an X or Y chromosome

131

Develops into seminal vesicles, vas deferent, prostate

Wolffian system. Male

132

Females produce a higher number of these than males

spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs)

133

What do people with androgen insensitivity syndrome lack?

Internal reproductive organs. They are infertile

134

Do many people with sex polysomies know they have them?

No

135

4 steps of sex hormone production

1.) Cholesterol to progesterone
2.) Progesterone to testosterone (androgen)
3.) Aromatization (changing the molecule) necessary to form estradiol
4.) Estradiol to estrogens

136

What does thyroxine do and where is it produced?

Metabolic rate produced in thyroid gland

137

What do gonads do?

Produce eggs or sperm (gametes) and secrete hormones (more important for our purposes)

138

Learned/sociocultural characteristic of being masculine or feminine

Gender

139

Is testosterone found only in males?

No

140

Effects of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in males

Few observable effects. Ceiling effect, adding a little testosterone to a lot

141

Physical and psychological symptoms immediately prior to the onset of menstruation

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)