Flashcards in Sleep Deck (82)
Acute sleep deprivation example
How does the first half of the night differ from the second?
More REM in second half and more NREM 3 and 4 in the first half
Where are the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei?
Why do infants get a lot of REM sleep?
Chemicals associated with sleep
Melatonin, adenosine, GABA
Chemicals associated with wakefulness
NE, 5HT, ACh, dopamine, histamine, hypocretin
What are the k complexes and sleep spindles thought to do?
Suppress cortical arousal to non-dangerous external stimuli (wake up only to meaningful stimuli) and aid in sleep based memory consolidation
What happens from the neck down in REM?
What do beta and alpha waves represent?
Beta = awake/alert
Alpha = awake/relaxed
Sleep. 1-3 Hz
What is hypnic myoclonia?
Jerking yourself awake bc you think you're falling
Neurons are firing more in unison and characterizes deep stages of sleep
Synchronous brain activity
What are ultradian cycles?
Times of being alert (more beta waves) occurring in 90 minute cycles
What do both waking and sleep involve?
Reciprocal circuits of excitation and inhibition
REM off areas
LC and RN
What appears in REM?
Active EEG similar to awake, beta waves, paradoxical sleep, and sympathetic nervous system activity
CHART ON 20
CHART ON 20
What does it mean to be task negative? What process is task negative?
Unfocused, daydreaming, mind-wandering. Default mode network is task negative
What happens during sensory input?
High frequency gamma band activity
Waves of NREM stage 1
Chronic sleep deprivation example
Only 5 hours for 3 months
What is NREM stage 1 similar to?
EEG of awake but with more theta hypnic myoclonia
What happens to REM sleep with increasing age?
It decreases and then remains relatively constant
What do EEGs do in sleep studies?
Electrodes on scalp record gross activity of the brain. Synchronized and desynchronized activity
Effects of sever sleep deprivation
Brief visual hallucinations (bad hallucination) and adverse health outcomes
Tired. 4-7 Hz
What happens in NREM stage 1?
Light sleep, muscle activity slows down, occasional muscle twitching
5HT and NE levels in awake, asleep (NREM), and asleep (REM)
Awake = high
NREM = low
REM = off