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Flashcards in Sleep Deck (82)
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1

Acute sleep deprivation example

Cramming

2

How does the first half of the night differ from the second?

More REM in second half and more NREM 3 and 4 in the first half

3

Where are the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei?

Pons

4

Why do infants get a lot of REM sleep?

Synapse building

5

Chemicals associated with sleep

Melatonin, adenosine, GABA

6

Chemicals associated with wakefulness

NE, 5HT, ACh, dopamine, histamine, hypocretin

7

What are the k complexes and sleep spindles thought to do?

Suppress cortical arousal to non-dangerous external stimuli (wake up only to meaningful stimuli) and aid in sleep based memory consolidation

8

What happens from the neck down in REM?

Paralysis

9

Releases NE

Locus coeruleus

10

What do beta and alpha waves represent?

Beta = awake/alert
Alpha = awake/relaxed

11

Sleep. 1-3 Hz

Delta waves

12

What is hypnic myoclonia?

Jerking yourself awake bc you think you're falling

13

Neurons are firing more in unison and characterizes deep stages of sleep

Synchronous brain activity

14

What are ultradian cycles?

Times of being alert (more beta waves) occurring in 90 minute cycles

15

What do both waking and sleep involve?

Reciprocal circuits of excitation and inhibition

16

REM off areas

LC and RN

17

What appears in REM?

Active EEG similar to awake, beta waves, paradoxical sleep, and sympathetic nervous system activity

18

CHART ON 20

CHART ON 20

19

What does it mean to be task negative? What process is task negative?

Unfocused, daydreaming, mind-wandering. Default mode network is task negative

20

What happens during sensory input?

High frequency gamma band activity

21

Waves of NREM stage 1

Theta

22

Chronic sleep deprivation example

Only 5 hours for 3 months

23

What is NREM stage 1 similar to?

EEG of awake but with more theta hypnic myoclonia

24

What happens to REM sleep with increasing age?

It decreases and then remains relatively constant

25

What do EEGs do in sleep studies?

Electrodes on scalp record gross activity of the brain. Synchronized and desynchronized activity

26

Effects of sever sleep deprivation

Brief visual hallucinations (bad hallucination) and adverse health outcomes

27

Tired. 4-7 Hz

Theta waves

28

What happens in NREM stage 1?

Light sleep, muscle activity slows down, occasional muscle twitching

29

5HT and NE levels in awake, asleep (NREM), and asleep (REM)

Awake = high
NREM = low
REM = off

30

These areas are most active in alert states but silent during REM

Locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei

31

These areas have diverse and rich projections to many brain areas

Locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei

32

What waves are in awake?

Alpha and beta

33

What do the LC and RN do before and during REM?

Decrease activity before sleep to disinhibit the pons. After 30 mins of REM they reactivate, inhibiting the pons leading to wakefulness or more NREM sleep

34

What percentage of sleep is NREM stage 1?

5%

35

Stimulation inhibits wakefulness circuits = more sleepy

Preoptic area of hypothalamus

36

How long are ultradian cycles?

About 90 minutes

37

What waves are shown in a waking EEG?

Alternation between beta and alpha

38

What happens in NREM 3?

Deep sleep begins, brain begins to generate slow delta waves

39

What percentage of sleep is in NREM 4?

12-15%

40

Alertness. 13-25 Hz

Beta waves

41

How does sleep restore our bodies?

The release of growth hormone and the repair of free radical induced damage

42

What types of processes are waking and sleep?

Active processes

43

What sleep stage is most common?

NREM 2

44

High during wakefulness and REM

ACh and glutamate

45

Onset of dark cycle. Surge before opening of sleep gate

Melatonin

46

Effects of moderate sleep deprivation

Depression, difficulty learning

47

What appears in NREM 4?

Delta waves, parasympathetic activity, and growth hormone release in the highest amount

48

What happens in NREM 4?

Very deep sleep, rhythmic breathing, limited muscle activity, brain produces delta waves

49

What is free radical induced damage

A factor associated with aging

50

What happens in REM?

Rapid eye movement, brainwaves speed up and dreaming occurs, muscles relax and heart rate inc, and breathing is rapid and shallow

51

What do electrooculograms (EOG) do in sleep studies?

Electrodes on eyelids to detect eye movements

52

High during wakefulness and low during sleep. Lowering during REM than NREM

Histamine

53

How are memories consolidated during sleep?

Learning during waking strengthens connections and memory processes are reorganized during sleep

54

What percentage of sleep is REM?

20-25%

55

This has higher EEG frequencies and lower amplitudes. Includes beta and gamma waves

Desynchronous brain activity

56

Waves of relaxed wakefulness

Alpha waves

57

What happens in NREM stage 2?

Breathing pattern and heart rate slows, slight decrease in body temp

58

Helps maintain desynchronized activity in cerebral cortex

Reticular formation

59

What waves are in NREM stage 2?

Sleep spindles and k complexes

60

What percentage of sleep in NREM stage 2?

45-55%

61

REM on area

Reticular formation in rostral pons

62

What do electromyograms (EMG) do in sleep studies?

Electrodes on muscles to record movement

63

What waves are in NREM 4?

Delta

64

What waves are in REM?

Beta

65

Builds up during wakefulness, gradually drops during sleep, and its receptors are blocked by caffeine

Adenosine

66

Wha happens in the default mode network?

Thinking about others, thinking about self, remembering the past, envisioning the future rather than the task being performed. Not engaged in focus but still thinking about things

67

Locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei. NE and 5HT release decreases, preparing brain for REM sleep

NREM on areas

68

Releases serotonin

Raphe nuclei

69

What is NREM 3 almost always grouped to and why?

NREM 4 bc its a transition stage into 4

70

When are dreams more likely to occur and why?

Second half of night bc more REM sleep

71

Awareness. Greater than 25 Hz

Gamma waves

72

What brain areas are important for wakefulness?

Reticular formation, locus coeruleus, and anterior raphe nuclei

73

Independent action of many neurons correlated with alertness

Desynchronous brain activity

74

4 reasons why we sleep

Keeps us safe
Restores our bodies
Reduces energy expenditure
Memories are consolidated during sleep

75

This has lower EEG frequencies and higher amplitudes. Includes delta and theta waves

Synchronous brain activity

76

What appears in NREM 3?

Delta waves, parasympathetic nervous system activity, the release of growth hormone

77

What percentage of sleep is in NREM 3?

6%

78

When active, cortical neuronal activity becomes synchronized

Reticular formation

79

What are sleep spindles and k complexes generated by?

Thalamus. Not the cortex

80

What does the reticular formation in rostral pons do?

REM on area. Responsible for rapid eye movement and muscle paralysis

81

Relaxed. 8-12 Hz

Alpha waves

82

Effects of minimal sleep deprivation

Irritability, poor concentration