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Flashcards in Sleep Deck (82)
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1

Acute sleep deprivation example

Cramming

2

How does the first half of the night differ from the second?

More REM in second half and more NREM 3 and 4 in the first half

3

Where are the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei?

Pons

4

Why do infants get a lot of REM sleep?

Synapse building

5

Chemicals associated with sleep

Melatonin, adenosine, GABA

6

Chemicals associated with wakefulness

NE, 5HT, ACh, dopamine, histamine, hypocretin

7

What are the k complexes and sleep spindles thought to do?

Suppress cortical arousal to non-dangerous external stimuli (wake up only to meaningful stimuli) and aid in sleep based memory consolidation

8

What happens from the neck down in REM?

Paralysis

9

Releases NE

Locus coeruleus

10

What do beta and alpha waves represent?

Beta = awake/alert
Alpha = awake/relaxed

11

Sleep. 1-3 Hz

Delta waves

12

What is hypnic myoclonia?

Jerking yourself awake bc you think you're falling

13

Neurons are firing more in unison and characterizes deep stages of sleep

Synchronous brain activity

14

What are ultradian cycles?

Times of being alert (more beta waves) occurring in 90 minute cycles

15

What do both waking and sleep involve?

Reciprocal circuits of excitation and inhibition

16

REM off areas

LC and RN

17

What appears in REM?

Active EEG similar to awake, beta waves, paradoxical sleep, and sympathetic nervous system activity

18

CHART ON 20

CHART ON 20

19

What does it mean to be task negative? What process is task negative?

Unfocused, daydreaming, mind-wandering. Default mode network is task negative

20

What happens during sensory input?

High frequency gamma band activity

21

Waves of NREM stage 1

Theta

22

Chronic sleep deprivation example

Only 5 hours for 3 months

23

What is NREM stage 1 similar to?

EEG of awake but with more theta hypnic myoclonia

24

What happens to REM sleep with increasing age?

It decreases and then remains relatively constant

25

What do EEGs do in sleep studies?

Electrodes on scalp record gross activity of the brain. Synchronized and desynchronized activity

26

Effects of sever sleep deprivation

Brief visual hallucinations (bad hallucination) and adverse health outcomes

27

Tired. 4-7 Hz

Theta waves

28

What happens in NREM stage 1?

Light sleep, muscle activity slows down, occasional muscle twitching

29

5HT and NE levels in awake, asleep (NREM), and asleep (REM)

Awake = high
NREM = low
REM = off

30

These areas are most active in alert states but silent during REM

Locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei