Peripheral Nervous System and the Spinal Cord Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Peripheral Nervous System and the Spinal Cord Deck (133)
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1

Autonomic nervous system functions

Involuntary responses

2

Cranial nerve II

Optic. Sensory. Sight

3

How can the BBB potentially be opened or weakened?

high blood pressure, microwaves, ultrasonic waves, radiation, infection, injury (stroke, inflammation, pressure)

4

Blockage of CSF flow usually at narrow points in the passage

Hydrocephalus

5

How is blood supplied to the brain anteriorly?

Carotid arteries

6

Spinal nerve regions for sympathetic and parasympathetic

Sympathetic = thoracic/lumbar
Parasympathetic = cranial/sacral

7

Cranial nerve VIII

Vestibulocochlear/auditory. sensory. inner ear

8

Same side of the midline

ipsilateral

9

What does the blood brain barrier do?

Excludes some molecules from passing easily

10

Far from the center

Distal

11

Opposite sides of the midline

contralateral

12

CSF path of flow

Ventricles down the spinal cord and up and around the cortex

13

What molecules are allowed through the BBB via passive diffusion?

water, some gasses like O2 and CO2, and lipid soluble molecules

14

What are the cerebral ventricles filled with?

CSF

15

Why is there left arm pain during a heart attack and who does it occur in?

Its linked to a spinal nerve and is pretty much only in males

16

How much CSF is replenished and how often?

100-150 mL at a time, replenished 3x a day

17

What are the 4 cerebral ventricles?

Lateral ventricles, third ventricle and fourth ventricle

18

What molecules are allowed through the BBB via active transport (protein channel)?

glucose and amino acids

19

Cranial nerve condition causing temporary paralysis of one side of face

Bell's palsy

20

Where does CSF exit into the bloodstream?

Superior sagittal sinus

21

How is the BBB related to Alzheimer's?

Research is showing that the BBB is leaky in Alzheimer's

22

How is blood supplied to the brain posteriorly?

Vertebral arteries at base of skull

23

What do the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways use at targets

Sympathetic uses NE and parasympathetic uses ACh

24

Functions of the somatic nervous system

Voluntary movement

25

Fight or flight response

Sympathetic division

26

What procedures are done on the meninges?

Spinal tap and epidural

27

Towards the midline

Medial

28

2nd synapse NT of sympathetic and parasympathetic

NE in sym and ACh in parasym

29

NTs of autonomic nervous system

ACh and NE

30

Cranial nerve VI

Abducens. Motor. external rectus muscle (eye)

31

Divides the brain into two relatively equal halves

Midsagittal section

32

Tight junction between endothelial cells and actroycyte end feet along capillaries

Blood brain barrier

33

Cranial nerve X

Vagus. both. motor heart, lungs, bronchi, GI tract. sensory heart lungs, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx, GI tract, external ear

34

Ventral horn

motor output for voluntary movement or spinal reflexes

35

Examples of spinal reflexes

patellar reflex, flexor-withdrawal, Babinski reflex

36

Constricts pupils to baseline and stimulates digestion

Parasympathetic

37

Divisions of autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic and parasympathetic

38

Where is there a ganglion chain and what does it do?

sympathetic to improve timing

39

Cranial nerve III

Oculomotor. Motor. Eye muscles

40

Structures of somatic nervous system

Motor neurons, neuromuscular junctions

41

Why is the patellar reflex sort of monosynaptic?

While you only excite one muscle group, you must inhibit its counterpart

42

Maintains constant internal environment

BBB

43

How many peripheral spinal nerves?

31

44

NTs of the somatic nervous system

ACh

45

Posterior of body

Bottom

46

What is the gray matter?

Cell bodies

47

1st synapse of sympathetic and parasympathetic

sympathetic = short with light myelination
parasympathetic = long with light myelination

48

Toward the back and higher in the brain

Superior or dorsal

49

Sun sneezing caused by overstimulation of trigeminal nerve

ACHOO syndrome

50

Close to the center

Proximal

51

Structures close to the midline

medial

52

How is Bells palsy caused

Usually following a sinus infection, inflammation/infection of facial nerve

53

Challenges of medicine and the BBB

how can we make a medicine that works and gets past the BBB

54

Structures to the side of the midline

lateral

55

Tail end of four legged animal and back of brain

Caudal or posterior

56

What does hydrocephalus cause?

Enlarged ventricles. The head can be so large they can't be born vaginally

57

What does the meninges do?

Provides 3 layers of protection for the nervous system

58

Effectors (targets) of autonomic nervous system

Cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, glands (lungs, digestive system, internal organs, etc.)

59

How are spinal cord segments connected and what do they do?

They are interconnected and are involved with complex coordinated movements

60

Toward the belly and lower in the brain

Inferior or ventral

61

What areas have weak BBBs?

Secreting centers like the choroid plexus, pineal gland, and pituitary gland

62

Head end of legged animal and front of brain

Rostral or anterior

63

Anterior of brain

Front

64

How is the spinal ganglion formed?

Outside spinal cord nerves swell

65

Cranial nerve IV

Trochlear. Motor. Superior oblique muscle (eye)

66

Worst version of meningitis that is relatively rare, life threatening, and has antibiotics and vaccines available

Bacterial. Meningococcal

67

Ventral of body

Front

68

CNS to body

Motor

69

Parasympathetic division neurons path

Top of spinal cord and brain long to another neuron and short to organs

70

Cranial nerve XII

Hypoglossal. motor. muscles of the tongue

71

Would CSF help a concussion?

No

72

Dorsal and ventral horns

Gray matter

73

Sensory

afferent

74

Fever, headache, neck pain/stiffness, photophobia

Symptoms of meningitis

75

Sudden drop in HR and BP (fainting). Usually caused by seeing blood or needles

Vasovagal syncope

76

What happens in the cervical and lumbar regions?

Enlargement of horns

77

Cranial nerve V

Trigeminal. Both. Sensory in face, sinuses, teeth, etc. Motor in muscles of mastication (chewing)

78

Should we focus on the primary injury or secondary injury of the spinal cord?

Secondary bc we can't do anything about the primary

79

How can the Babinski reflex be observed in adults?

Spinal cord damage

80

How does the CSF move?

In a pulsatile manner throughout the CSF system with a nearly zero net flow

81

Ascending and descending tracts

White matter

82

Cranial nerve VII

Facial. both. facial muscles

83

Cranial nerves

12 pairs, exit and enter directly from brain, sensory motor or both

84

Dorsal of brain

Top

85

Cranial nerve IX

Glossopharyngeal. both. motor food to pharynx. sensory posterior part of tongue, tonsil, pharynx

86

Cranial nerve I

Olfactory. Sensory. Smell

87

What are the three layers of the meninges?

Dura mater, arachnoid mater (only in CNS) and Pia mater

88

Regions of spine

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

89

Spinal nerves

31 left/right pairs that are afferent or efferent

90

Dilates pupils and inhibits digestive functions

Sympathetic

91

Ventral of brain

Bottom

92

How many cerebral ventricles are there?

4

93

Monitoring centers for the BBB

Area postrema (makes you vomit if too much of certain things like alcohol) and some hypothalamic nuclei

94

Increased heart rate, blood pressure and blood flow to skeletal muscles

Sympathetic

95

Protects the brain from foreign substances

BBB

96

What happens below the injury to the spinal cord?

loss of sensation (skin and internal organs), loss of voluntary movement (reflexive movement depends on location), loss of voluntary control of bladder and bowel (located in sacral portion)

97

Dorsal of body

Back

98

What does CSF do?

Mechanical and immunological protection, nutrition/excretion, regulation fo cerebral blood flow, buoyancy/cushioning

99

Cranial nerve XI

Spinal accessory. motor. sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles

100

Motor efferents (spine)

Ventral

101

Most common form of meningitis that affects younger individuals and is self resolving

Viral

102

Body to CNS

Sensory

103

Dorsal horn

sensory input

104

What cells form the BBB and how?

Astrocytes wrap around blood vessels in the brain

105

HSV1 (herpes simplex virus) caused by viral infection of facial nerve

Cold sores

106

Painful skin rash appearing in a band or strip on one side of body (dermatome)

Shingles

107

Rest and digest

Parasympathetic

108

Calms body to conserve and maintain energy

Parasympathetic

109

Releases ACh and NE

Sympathetic division

110

What is the white matter?

Axons

111

Mixed nerves that splits to dorsal and ventral

Spinal nerves

112

Area of the skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single spinal cord dorsal root

Dermatome

113

What is the composition of CSF?

Similar to clear plasma of blood but without proteins

114

1st synapse NT of sympathetic and parasympathetic

ACh for both

115

Sensory afferents containing root ganglion (spine)

Dorsal

116

What makes CSF and where?

Ependymal cells make it in the choroid plexus (lines the walls of the cerebral ventricles) or cells in subarachnoid space

117

Sympathetic division neurons path

Spinal cord short to sympathetic chain ganglion and long to organs

118

Away from the midline

Lateral

119

How can hydrocephalus be treated?

Shunting procedure

120

Parallel to midline planes

Sagittal section

121

Decreases heart rate and blood pressure

Parasympathetic

122

Divides the brain from top to bottom

Horizontal (axial, transverse) section

123

Posterior of brain

Back

124

Why are the cerebral ventricles correlated with enlarged size in some neurodegenerative disorders?

If there's empty space, fluid fills the space

125

What molecules are blocked by the BBB?

large molecules, non-lipid soluble molecules, highly charged molecules, potential neurotoxins, and many drugs including would be meds

126

Protects the brain from hormones and NTs in rest of body

BBB

127

Motor

efferent

128

Three forms of meningitis

Bacterial, fungal and viral

129

Where does the spinal cord extend from to?

Medulla to the first lumbar vertebra

130

2nd synapse of sympathetic and parasympathetic

sympathetic = long unmyelinated
parasympathetic = short unmyelinated

131

Divides nervous system from front to back

Coronal (frontal) sections

132

Anterior of body

Top

133

Effectors (targets) of the somatic nervous system

Skeletal muscles