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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (111)
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1

Four categories of small molecules

Acetylcholine (ACh), monoamines, amino acids, and ATP and its byproducts

2

What molecule does adenosine work with?

Caffeine

3

Where is serotonin released?

Pons, particularly the raphe nuclei which often works with the locus coeruleus, projecting widely to the brain and spinal cord

4

This dopamine release circuit involves movement and sensory stimuli. It goes from the substantia nigra to the basal ganglia

Nigrostriatial

5

What is acetylcholines role in the PNS?

Both parts of the parasympathetic subdivision, fist part of the sympathetic subdivision, and a neuromuscular junction (NMJ)

6

What NT is norepinephrine made from?

Dopamine

7

Three indolamines

Serotonin, melatonin, and histamine

8

What behaviors are associated with norepinephrine?

Arousal (general state of wakefulness/excitability), vigilance, and mood

9

How is dopamine inactivated/removed?

Enzymes Monoamine oxidase (MAO), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase, act in sequence to break it down

10

Where is histamine released?

Tuberomamillary nucleus in hypothalamus

11

These receptors bind nicotine

Nicotinic ACh receptors

12

What is the main excitatory NT?

Glutamate

13

How does an NMDA glutamate receptor work?

Glutamate binds to AMDA receptor first, causes the NMDA to twist and the Mg+ to leave, opening the channel and allowing calcium/sodium in for a wave of depolarization

14

Where is glycine located?

Spinal interneurons, retina, and CNS (not usually acting independently)

15

What are GPCRs and what do they indicate about receptors?

G protein coupled receptors. They are metabotropic

16

What does noradrenaline mean?

Norepinephrine

17

What would serotonin pills cause?

An overactive digestive system

18

Where is acetylcholine released?

The basal forebrain and the cholinergic nuclei of the pons and midbrain

19

What does adrenaline mean?

Epinephrine

20

What dopamine receptors are excitatory?

D1 and D5 GPCRs (metabotropic)

21

What causes aggression?

Low 5HT

22

How is GABA made?

Made from glutamate by enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)

23

What are the functions of glycine?

Inhibition, excitation at the NMDA glutamate receptor (co-activator), and sleep

24

What do AMPA receptors do?

Open sodium channels. Ionotropic

25

What enzymes are associated with breaking down catecholamines?

Monoamine oxidase (MAO), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase

26

What clinical conditions/disorders are associated with norepinephrine?

Depression, anxiety, PTSD, ADHD

27

What is part of the catecholamines but isn't a NT?

L-Dopa

28

What receptors are associated with dopamine?

D1 and D5 are excitatory
D2, D3, and D4 are inhibitory

29

Where is dopamine released from?

Substantia nigra (part of the midbrain) and sends to the basal ganglia. Ventral tegmentum projections to hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (mesolimbic). Ventral tegmentum projections to frontal lobe of the cortex (mesocortical)

30

What gas-transmitter easily crosses the blood-brain barrier?

Carbon monoxide (CO)

31

What is epinephrines role in the CNS?

Minimal. There are very few receptors in the brain.

32

What do NMDA receptors do and why are they special?

Opens channel for sodium and calcium. It is both voltage gated and ligand gated. Ionotropic

33

What are the iontropic receptors involved with glutamate?

AMPA - most common
Kainate
NMDA

34

What is substance P associated with?

Pain

35

How is glutamate removed?

Uptake into adjacent astrocytes. They change it to inactive and send it back to the axon terminal

36

How is GABA removed?

Uptake into adjacent astrocytes

37

What is cholecystokinin associated with?

Food/knowing when you've had enough fat

38

What is neuropeptide Y associated with?

Feeding/hunger/fullness

39

What receptors are involved with serotonin?

At least 15 different types and sub-types. Most are metabotropic and can be excitatory or inhibitory

40

Where is epinephrine released?

Adrenal glands near kidneys

41

What are oxytocin and vasopressin associated with?

Sex

42

What behaviors are associated with dopamine?

Movement control, reinforcement, planning, and reward

43

Three catecholamines

Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine

44

How is histamine deactivated/removed?

Reuptake

45

What receptors do gasotransmitters interact with?

Intracellular receptors

46

How are catecholamines made? What must happen to make one and how are they related?

Each catecholamine is made from the one before it. They are in a series

47

These diffuse away from the point of release

NMs

48

What clinical conditions/disorders are associated with dopamine?

Parkinson's disease (not enough=movement problems), schizophrenia, drug abuse

49

What is histamines role in the PNS?

In stomach to stimulate production of HCl (inc HCl to digest) and in immune system to vasodilate in response to allergies (inc mucus bc of allergies)

50

What are the functions of glutamate?

Excitation and long-term memory

51

These are released at directed synapses with a clear target in mind. They act on neurons in immediate vicinity

NTs

52

Three categories of neurochemicals

Small molecules, neuropeptides, and gasotransmitters

53

These receptors are located at NMJ (neuromuscular junction), ANS (autonomic nervous system), and CNS (central nervous system) and are excitatory and postsynaptic

Nicotinic ACh receptors

54

What do Kainate receptors do?

Open sodium channels. Ionotropic

55

How do GABA-B receptors work?

Metabotropic less common of the two. Opens potassium channels allowing it to flow out

56

These are released at non-directed synapses (volume-transmission) and act on distant neurons

NMs and NHs

57

What does L-Dopa do?

It is needed to make the other catecholamines

58

What receptors are involved with histamines?

H1-H4 all metabotropic GPCRs

59

These receptors are metabotropic/GPCR and found in myocardial, smooth muscle (digestive tract), and CNS

Muscarinic ACh receptors

60

What is norepinephrines role in the PNS?

Sympathetic division (fight or flight), increase blood sugar levels, increase heart rate, narrow blood vessels to increase blood pressure

61

Where is adenosine located?

CNS, autonomic nervous system, in cells containing catecholamines

62

These receptors are blocked by the poison curare

Nicotinic ACh receptors

63

What NTs are the primary excitatory and inhibitory NTs?

Amino acid NTs

64

What do indolamines always end in?

-in

65

This dopamine release circuit involves cognition, memory, attention, emotional behavior, and learning. It goes from the ventral tegmentum projections to frontal lobe of cortex

Mesocortical

66

What receptors are associated with norepinephrine?

Alpha and beta receptors

67

What are the functions of adenosine?

Pain modulation (reduces it) and inhibition

68

What behaviors are associated with histamine?

Promotes wakefulness, movement, some roles in homeostasis

69

What does caffeine bind to and act similarly to?

It binds to adenosine receptors and acts similar to adenosine

70

These travel in blood supply

NHs

71

Two gasotransmitters

Nitric oxide, carbon monoxide

72

What are some gasotransmitters and what do they do?

Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). They transfer info from one cell to another and diffuse through membranes and interact with intracellular receptors

73

What clinical conditions/disorders are associated with serotonin?

Depression, OCD, anxiety, and many more

74

Three amino acids and how many others (involved in neurochemicals)?

Glutamate, GABA, glycine, and 5 others

75

What two NTs are needed to activate an NMDA receptor?

Glutamate and glycine

76

What does the suffix -ergic usually tell us?

It releases a NT

77

What is the abbreviation for serotonin

5HT

78

What are the behaviors of acetylcholine?

Autonomic functions like heart rate and breathing, movement through muscle contraction, and learning/memory because it helps us to pay attention

79

How many neuropeptides are there?

More than 100 and counting

80

This dopamine release circuit involves pleasure, reward, seeking behaviors, addiction, emotion, and perception. It goes from the ventral tegmentum projections to hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens

Mesolimbic

81

What is serotonins role in the PNS?

Enteric (gut) motility (biggest source of 5HT) and it is involved in everything and responsible for almost nothing

82

What are the receptors involved with GABA?

GABA-A and GABA-B

83

These receptors bind muscarine and are blocked by the poison atropine

Muscarinic ACh receptors

84

What do NT, NM, and NH stand for?

Neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone

85

What specific disorders or clinical conditions is ACh associated with?

Alzheimers disease because the basal forebrain is one of the first places to deteriorate due to too little ACh, myasthenia gravis due to ACh not being able to bond, and schizophrenia because many are chain smokers and nicotine binds to ACh receptors

86

Why are NMDA receptors good at sending a strong signal?

They let in calcium which is very positive. It is a big deal for depolarization

87

How is histamine synthesized?

Made from the amino acid histidine

88

How is serotonin synthesized?

It is made from the amino acid tryptophan

89

What is a special trait of gasotransmitters?

They can transmit info from postsynaptic to presynaptic neurons. They can flow forward and back.

90

What is dopamines role in the PNS?

Modulation. Influences the activity of a lot of other NTs

91

How is norepinephrine synthesized?

Dopamine beta hydroxyolase converts dopamine into norepinephrine

92

What are the metabotropoic receptors involved with glutamate?

mGluRs

93

What are the functions of GABA?

Inhibition, mood (anxiety), and seizure threshold

94

What is the main inhibitory NT?

GABA

95

These receptors mediate both inhibition and excitation in target cells and are both presynaptic and postsynaptic

Muscarinic ACh receptors

96

Where is norepinephrine released?

Pons (locus coeruleus which projects widely to spinal cord and brain), medulla, hypothalamus, and postganglionic sympathetic synapses

97

What does adenosine usually co-occur with?

Catecholamines

98

How is ACh removed?

Breakdown by enzyme Acetylcholinesterase (ACHE)

99

How do GABA-A receptors work?

Ionotropic. Cl- ion channels allows Cl- to flow in. It has many binding sites including benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and ethanol (many binding sites other than GABA)

100

How is dopamine synthesized?

Dopa Decarboxylase converts L-Dopa into dopamine

101

How is glutamate synthesized?

Kreb's cycle

102

What clinical conditions/disorders are associated with histamines?

May be involved in immune system disorders or allergies or sleep disorders

103

How is serotonin deactivated/removed?

Reuptake by serotonin transporter and breakdown by monoamine oxidase (MAO)

104

What dopamine receptors are inhibitory?

D2, D3, and D4 GPCRs (metabotropic)

105

What is epinephrines role role in the PNS?

Increased blood sugar levels, increased heart rate, increased contractility (how hard the heart squeezes), relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways to improve breathing

106

What behaviors are associated with serotonin?

Mood, sleep/wake cycles, aggression, social rank, appetite

107

How is norepinephrine deactivated/removed?

Enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase acting in sequence to break down norepinephrine

108

How is ACh synthesized?

Choline from diet + Acetyl CoA enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)

109

Two categories of monoamines

Catecholamines and indolamines

110

What are endorphins associated with?

Runners high

111

Seven neuropeptides and how many others?

Endorphins, substance P, cholecystokinin, insulin, vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, and more than 40 others