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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (111)
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1

Four categories of small molecules

Acetylcholine (ACh), monoamines, amino acids, and ATP and its byproducts

2

What molecule does adenosine work with?

Caffeine

3

Where is serotonin released?

Pons, particularly the raphe nuclei which often works with the locus coeruleus, projecting widely to the brain and spinal cord

4

This dopamine release circuit involves movement and sensory stimuli. It goes from the substantia nigra to the basal ganglia

Nigrostriatial

5

What is acetylcholines role in the PNS?

Both parts of the parasympathetic subdivision, fist part of the sympathetic subdivision, and a neuromuscular junction (NMJ)

6

What NT is norepinephrine made from?

Dopamine

7

Three indolamines

Serotonin, melatonin, and histamine

8

What behaviors are associated with norepinephrine?

Arousal (general state of wakefulness/excitability), vigilance, and mood

9

How is dopamine inactivated/removed?

Enzymes Monoamine oxidase (MAO), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase, act in sequence to break it down

10

Where is histamine released?

Tuberomamillary nucleus in hypothalamus

11

These receptors bind nicotine

Nicotinic ACh receptors

12

What is the main excitatory NT?

Glutamate

13

How does an NMDA glutamate receptor work?

Glutamate binds to AMDA receptor first, causes the NMDA to twist and the Mg+ to leave, opening the channel and allowing calcium/sodium in for a wave of depolarization

14

Where is glycine located?

Spinal interneurons, retina, and CNS (not usually acting independently)

15

What are GPCRs and what do they indicate about receptors?

G protein coupled receptors. They are metabotropic

16

What does noradrenaline mean?

Norepinephrine

17

What would serotonin pills cause?

An overactive digestive system

18

Where is acetylcholine released?

The basal forebrain and the cholinergic nuclei of the pons and midbrain

19

What does adrenaline mean?

Epinephrine

20

What dopamine receptors are excitatory?

D1 and D5 GPCRs (metabotropic)

21

What causes aggression?

Low 5HT

22

How is GABA made?

Made from glutamate by enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)

23

What are the functions of glycine?

Inhibition, excitation at the NMDA glutamate receptor (co-activator), and sleep

24

What do AMPA receptors do?

Open sodium channels. Ionotropic

25

What enzymes are associated with breaking down catecholamines?

Monoamine oxidase (MAO), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase

26

What clinical conditions/disorders are associated with norepinephrine?

Depression, anxiety, PTSD, ADHD

27

What is part of the catecholamines but isn't a NT?

L-Dopa

28

What receptors are associated with dopamine?

D1 and D5 are excitatory
D2, D3, and D4 are inhibitory

29

Where is dopamine released from?

Substantia nigra (part of the midbrain) and sends to the basal ganglia. Ventral tegmentum projections to hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (mesolimbic). Ventral tegmentum projections to frontal lobe of the cortex (mesocortical)

30

What gas-transmitter easily crosses the blood-brain barrier?

Carbon monoxide (CO)