Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (111)
Four categories of small molecules
Acetylcholine (ACh), monoamines, amino acids, and ATP and its byproducts
What molecule does adenosine work with?
Where is serotonin released?
Pons, particularly the raphe nuclei which often works with the locus coeruleus, projecting widely to the brain and spinal cord
This dopamine release circuit involves movement and sensory stimuli. It goes from the substantia nigra to the basal ganglia
What is acetylcholines role in the PNS?
Both parts of the parasympathetic subdivision, fist part of the sympathetic subdivision, and a neuromuscular junction (NMJ)
What NT is norepinephrine made from?
Serotonin, melatonin, and histamine
What behaviors are associated with norepinephrine?
Arousal (general state of wakefulness/excitability), vigilance, and mood
How is dopamine inactivated/removed?
Enzymes Monoamine oxidase (MAO), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase, act in sequence to break it down
Where is histamine released?
Tuberomamillary nucleus in hypothalamus
These receptors bind nicotine
Nicotinic ACh receptors
What is the main excitatory NT?
How does an NMDA glutamate receptor work?
Glutamate binds to AMDA receptor first, causes the NMDA to twist and the Mg+ to leave, opening the channel and allowing calcium/sodium in for a wave of depolarization
Where is glycine located?
Spinal interneurons, retina, and CNS (not usually acting independently)
What are GPCRs and what do they indicate about receptors?
G protein coupled receptors. They are metabotropic
What does noradrenaline mean?
What would serotonin pills cause?
An overactive digestive system
Where is acetylcholine released?
The basal forebrain and the cholinergic nuclei of the pons and midbrain
What does adrenaline mean?
What dopamine receptors are excitatory?
D1 and D5 GPCRs (metabotropic)
What causes aggression?
How is GABA made?
Made from glutamate by enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)
What are the functions of glycine?
Inhibition, excitation at the NMDA glutamate receptor (co-activator), and sleep
What do AMPA receptors do?
Open sodium channels. Ionotropic
What enzymes are associated with breaking down catecholamines?
Monoamine oxidase (MAO), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase
What clinical conditions/disorders are associated with norepinephrine?
Depression, anxiety, PTSD, ADHD
What is part of the catecholamines but isn't a NT?
What receptors are associated with dopamine?
D1 and D5 are excitatory
D2, D3, and D4 are inhibitory
Where is dopamine released from?
Substantia nigra (part of the midbrain) and sends to the basal ganglia. Ventral tegmentum projections to hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (mesolimbic). Ventral tegmentum projections to frontal lobe of the cortex (mesocortical)