Flashcards in Reward Deck (72)
What can aggression lead to if not inhibited?
Involved with cognition, memory, attention, emotional behavior, and learning
Mesocortical dopamine pathway
Positive effect an object or condition has on the user
What do antisocial, violent people show?
Abnormalities of hypothalamic function
Involves being against different species for food, few vocalizations, attack head or neck
4 parts of the mesolimbocortical dopamine system
1. Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
2. Medial forebrain bundle (MFB)
3. Nucleus accumbens (NA)
4. Prefrontal cortex (PFC)
Gene x environment interactions determining aggression
High and low activity versions of MAOA and child maltreatment and antisocial behavior
The target for the mesolimbic pathway in the mesolimbocortical dopamine system
Nucleus accumbens (NA)
Can brain damage cause aggression?
Involved in pleasure and reward seeking behaviors, addiction, emotion, and perception
Mesolimbic dopamine pathway
Increases reactivity to threatening stimuli
How do impulsive brains lead to a higher risk of drug use/addiction?
Fewer or less functional D2 receptors leads to poorly regulated dopamine release which leads to high amounts of dopamine in response to natural rewards or drugs
Large white matter tract containing fibers from ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens, olfactory regions, peri-amymdalaloid regions, and septal area
medial forebrain bundle
The dopamine release center of the mesolimbocortical dopamine release system
Ventral tegmental area (VTA)
The major reward pathway
Mesolimbocortical Dopamine System
The fiber pathway that connects structures in the mesolimbocortical dopamine system
Medial forebrain bundle (MFB)
What does stimulation of the amygdala cause? Damage?
Stimulation = aggression
Damage = tameness/calmness
Rhesus Monkeys and 5HT
Low in social hierarchy = low in 5HT. Attempt to increase status by initiating aggression
The subjective feeling of pleasure or satisfaction that occurs when one receives a reward
What do genotypes associated with violence increase?
Risk of alcoholism
What does lateral hypothalamus stimulation cause?
What does stimulation of the hypothalamus cause?
3 examples of places reward can come from
1. Reinforce pleasurable activities
2. Behaviors beneficial for survival
3. Behaviors associated with drug highs
When are dopamine bursts in the ventral tegmental area highest?
Right after an unexpected reward or in anticipation of a reward
Carry a variety of functions, like inhibition of Ca channels and control of pacemaker activity
Postsynaptic D2 receptors
Connects the midbrain and limbic system
Characterized by mouthing, hyper-sexuality, visual agnosia, loss of normal fear and anger, memory loss, distractibility, seizures, and dementia
How does delay in reward relate to dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area?
No or short delay = highest firing and dopamine release
Long delay = lower firing and dopamine release
What do the brains of impulsive people show?
Fewer or less functional D2 receptors