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Flashcards in Reward Deck (72)
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1

What can aggression lead to if not inhibited?

Violence

2

Involved with cognition, memory, attention, emotional behavior, and learning

Mesocortical dopamine pathway

3

Positive effect an object or condition has on the user

Reward

4

What do antisocial, violent people show?

Abnormalities of hypothalamic function

5

Involves being against different species for food, few vocalizations, attack head or neck

Predatory aggression

6

4 parts of the mesolimbocortical dopamine system

1. Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
2. Medial forebrain bundle (MFB)
3. Nucleus accumbens (NA)
4. Prefrontal cortex (PFC)

7

Gene x environment interactions determining aggression

High and low activity versions of MAOA and child maltreatment and antisocial behavior

8

The target for the mesolimbic pathway in the mesolimbocortical dopamine system

Nucleus accumbens (NA)

9

Can brain damage cause aggression?

Possibly

10

Involved in pleasure and reward seeking behaviors, addiction, emotion, and perception

Mesolimbic dopamine pathway

11

Increases reactivity to threatening stimuli

Testosterone

12

How do impulsive brains lead to a higher risk of drug use/addiction?

Fewer or less functional D2 receptors leads to poorly regulated dopamine release which leads to high amounts of dopamine in response to natural rewards or drugs

13

Large white matter tract containing fibers from ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens, olfactory regions, peri-amymdalaloid regions, and septal area

medial forebrain bundle

14

The dopamine release center of the mesolimbocortical dopamine release system

Ventral tegmental area (VTA)

15

The major reward pathway

Mesolimbocortical Dopamine System

16

The fiber pathway that connects structures in the mesolimbocortical dopamine system

Medial forebrain bundle (MFB)

17

What does stimulation of the amygdala cause? Damage?

Stimulation = aggression
Damage = tameness/calmness

18

Rhesus Monkeys and 5HT

Low in social hierarchy = low in 5HT. Attempt to increase status by initiating aggression

19

The subjective feeling of pleasure or satisfaction that occurs when one receives a reward

Liking

20

What do genotypes associated with violence increase?

Risk of alcoholism

21

What does lateral hypothalamus stimulation cause?

Predatory aggression

22

What does stimulation of the hypothalamus cause?

Rage

23

3 examples of places reward can come from

1. Reinforce pleasurable activities
2. Behaviors beneficial for survival
3. Behaviors associated with drug highs

24

When are dopamine bursts in the ventral tegmental area highest?

Right after an unexpected reward or in anticipation of a reward

25

Carry a variety of functions, like inhibition of Ca channels and control of pacemaker activity

Postsynaptic D2 receptors

26

Connects the midbrain and limbic system

Mesolimbic pathway

27

Characterized by mouthing, hyper-sexuality, visual agnosia, loss of normal fear and anger, memory loss, distractibility, seizures, and dementia

Kluver-Bucy syndrome

28

How does delay in reward relate to dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area?

No or short delay = highest firing and dopamine release
Long delay = lower firing and dopamine release

29

What do the brains of impulsive people show?

Fewer or less functional D2 receptors

30

Affects processing of aversive stimuli by limbic system

5HT

31

Facilitates inhibitory activity of prefrontal cortex

5HT

32

Involved in movement and sensory stimuli

Nigrostriatial dopamine pathway

33

What does stimulation of the septal area cause?

Intense, pleasant sexual feelings

34

How does the ventral tegmental area connect to the nucleus accumbens in the mesolimbic pathway?

Medial forebrain bundle

35

What is the gene related to aggression?

MAOA

36

Bilateral loss of the amygdala

Kluver-Bucy syndrome

37

What does the cortex do to the hypothalamus?

Inhibits it

38

What does stimulation of the medial thalamus cause?

Unpleasant tactile irritation. Feels like bugs crawling on you

39

Attacks to kill aggression

Predatory aggression

40

Heritability and gens of aggression

Impulsive aggression heritability between 44-72 percent. Aggression can be selectively bred in animals

41

Sometimes ___ is better than ___

Looking forward to reward, the actual reward

42

Just for show aggression

Affective aggression

43

What can some seizures, like temporal lobe seizures, cause?

Agression

44

High levels of sympathetic nervous system activity in this aggression

Affective aggression

45

What does electrical self-stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle lead to?

Reward. In rats, the will do this over everything else bc it gives a reward

46

What does the MAOA gene do?

Produces monoamine oxidases

47

The effects that rewards have in promoting learning

Reinforcement

48

Wanting or craving leads to this whereas liking does not

Addiction

49

Increases in competitive situations

Testosterone

50

What is important to note about most people with the low MAOA gene?

They are normal, law-abiding people

51

The target for the mesocortical pathway in the mesolimbocortical dopamine system

Prefrontal cortex (PFC)

52

3 dopamine pathways in the brain

1. mesocortical
2. nigrostriatial
3. mesolimbic

53

What NT is involved with wanting and addiction?

Dopamine

54

Ventral tegmental area to prefrontal cortex

Mesocortical dopamine pathway

55

Inhibits violence by influencing empathy

5HT

56

What is prenatal exposure to testosterone correlated with?

Higher aggressiveness

57

What happens to self-stimulation of the MFB if dopamine antagonists are infused into the nucleus accumbens?

Rewarding effect is blocked

58

How is aggression related within species?

It is related to dominance

59

Ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens

Mesolimbic dopamine pathway

60

Greatly valuing the reward now over a greater reward in the future

Temporal discounting

61

Important for regulating dopamine release

Presynaptic D2 receptors

62

Involves intimidation, not killing for food, vocalizations, threatening posture

Affective aggression

63

How do presynaptic D2 receptors work?

Sense high concentrations of dopamine floating around in the synapse and inhibit the cell which released the dopamine and reduce the amount of NT it will release next time

64

Low levels of this predict aggressiveness

5HT

65

Important role in cost-benefit analysis. Mesocortical pathway

Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)

66

What does medial hypothalamus stimulation cause?

Affective aggression

67

No activity in sympathetic nervous system in this aggression. Calm heart rate

Predatory aggression

68

Manages delayed gratification. Mesocortical pathway

Orbitofrontal cortex

69

Reduces the inhibition of aggression normally managed by the cingulate and frontal cortices

Alcohol

70

What does removal of the cerebral cortex produce?

Sham rage

71

Rage without any cause

Sham rage

72

The desire to obtain a reward. Great when you get it, but don't have it yet

Wanting