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Flashcards in Reward Deck (72)
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1

What can aggression lead to if not inhibited?

Violence

2

Involved with cognition, memory, attention, emotional behavior, and learning

Mesocortical dopamine pathway

3

Positive effect an object or condition has on the user

Reward

4

What do antisocial, violent people show?

Abnormalities of hypothalamic function

5

Involves being against different species for food, few vocalizations, attack head or neck

Predatory aggression

6

4 parts of the mesolimbocortical dopamine system

1. Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
2. Medial forebrain bundle (MFB)
3. Nucleus accumbens (NA)
4. Prefrontal cortex (PFC)

7

Gene x environment interactions determining aggression

High and low activity versions of MAOA and child maltreatment and antisocial behavior

8

The target for the mesolimbic pathway in the mesolimbocortical dopamine system

Nucleus accumbens (NA)

9

Can brain damage cause aggression?

Possibly

10

Involved in pleasure and reward seeking behaviors, addiction, emotion, and perception

Mesolimbic dopamine pathway

11

Increases reactivity to threatening stimuli

Testosterone

12

How do impulsive brains lead to a higher risk of drug use/addiction?

Fewer or less functional D2 receptors leads to poorly regulated dopamine release which leads to high amounts of dopamine in response to natural rewards or drugs

13

Large white matter tract containing fibers from ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens, olfactory regions, peri-amymdalaloid regions, and septal area

medial forebrain bundle

14

The dopamine release center of the mesolimbocortical dopamine release system

Ventral tegmental area (VTA)

15

The major reward pathway

Mesolimbocortical Dopamine System

16

The fiber pathway that connects structures in the mesolimbocortical dopamine system

Medial forebrain bundle (MFB)

17

What does stimulation of the amygdala cause? Damage?

Stimulation = aggression
Damage = tameness/calmness

18

Rhesus Monkeys and 5HT

Low in social hierarchy = low in 5HT. Attempt to increase status by initiating aggression

19

The subjective feeling of pleasure or satisfaction that occurs when one receives a reward

Liking

20

What do genotypes associated with violence increase?

Risk of alcoholism

21

What does lateral hypothalamus stimulation cause?

Predatory aggression

22

What does stimulation of the hypothalamus cause?

Rage

23

3 examples of places reward can come from

1. Reinforce pleasurable activities
2. Behaviors beneficial for survival
3. Behaviors associated with drug highs

24

When are dopamine bursts in the ventral tegmental area highest?

Right after an unexpected reward or in anticipation of a reward

25

Carry a variety of functions, like inhibition of Ca channels and control of pacemaker activity

Postsynaptic D2 receptors

26

Connects the midbrain and limbic system

Mesolimbic pathway

27

Characterized by mouthing, hyper-sexuality, visual agnosia, loss of normal fear and anger, memory loss, distractibility, seizures, and dementia

Kluver-Bucy syndrome

28

How does delay in reward relate to dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area?

No or short delay = highest firing and dopamine release
Long delay = lower firing and dopamine release

29

What do the brains of impulsive people show?

Fewer or less functional D2 receptors

30

Affects processing of aversive stimuli by limbic system

5HT