Flashcards in Schizophrenia Deck (67)
Too little dopamine in nigrostriatial pathway causes what?
Extra side effects
What is the 3 hit model of SZ?
Genetic predisposition + peri-natal insult (around birth) + stress/life experiences = SZ
Prenatal environmental factors leading to inc risk of SZ
Perinatal complications (any birth complication), malnourishment, infection, vitamin D deficiency
Ventricles of schizophrenia patients
What does the glutamate hypothesis say?
Disturbance in glutamate systems causes negative and cognitive symptoms
What type of frontal lobe activity is seen in schizophrenia patients? What is this called?
Less frontal lobe activity. Hypofrontality
Most common type of schizophrenia
Impairment increasing with each of several episodes followed by negative symptoms (33%)
What produces further gray matter loss after the first psychotic episode?
Olazapine, clozapine, and rispiridone
Where do atypicals work?
D2 and 5HT2A receptors
Subtle behavioral abnormalities; early effects of dopamine dysfunction and extraneous effects of genetic or environmental insults
What are typical antipsychotics and what do they treat?
Dopamine antagonists that treat positive symptoms
Caused tardive dyskinesia
SZ patients have inc density of this receptor not related to history of cannabis use
Parts of the glutamate hypothesis
Reduced number of glutamate receptors, greater drop in glutamate with aging, and PCP blocks NMDA glutamate receptor and is a dopamine agonist
What do dopamine agonists do in schizophrenia?
Produce psychotic behavior (cocaine, amphetamines, L-dopa)
When is the typical onset for schizophrenia?
How do genes inc the risk of SZ?
The more similar the genes = the greater the risk
What does ketamine do?
Blocks NMDA receptor to not allow Ca to enter the cell so it cant depolarize.
Abnormalities at D2 receptors and greater dopamine synthesis and release leads to positive symptoms
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Disorganized speech, hallucinations, delusions, disorganized behavior
Persistent negative symptoms; consequences of altered dopamine development on glutamate and GABA
What does the dopamine hypothesis state?
Too much dopamine is linked to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Eyetracking and SZ relationship
Patients and 45% of their relatives show abnormal intrusions of saccades (jerky eye movements) in smooth pursuit tasks
Associated with relapses of psychotic symptoms
Early migration abnormalities in schizophrenia patients
Less clear ventricular zone is visible. Hard to see normal inside out growth
What are extrapyramidal symptoms?
Pseudoparkinsonism, acute dystonia, akathisia, TD. Movement problems created by typicals
What part of schizophrenia are we worst at treating?
Cellular organization of schizophrenia patients
Disorganized. No nice lines of cell bodies and dendrites and axons are all over the place