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Flashcards in Memory Deck (115)
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1

What is needed for long term memory?

Proteins

2

Involved in perceptual priming

Sensory systems

3

Protein kinases (PKM) prevents the removal or AMPA receptors. Lasts indefinitely

Maintenance (stage 4 of synaptic strengthening)

4

BDNF produces sustained calcium release. Protein synthesis contributes to stability. Lasts about 2-4 hours

Consolidation required (stage3 of synaptic strengthening)

5

What is the most beneficial way to prevent cognitive decline?

Social interaction and physical exercise as opposed to video games or isolated/stationary tasks

6

High amounts of this cause impairments in consolidation and retrieval

ACh

7

What happens in storage/consolidation?

Neural trace formed via synaptic plasticity across neurons and brain regions to form a physical representation of a memory

8

Learning new info

Encoding

9

What does increased activation of the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus predict?

Improved later remembering

10

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11

Process of accessing stored memories (remembering)

Retrieval

12

Essential to memory functions and has differential effects in different stages of memory

Acetylcholine (ACh)

13

Parts of non declarative (implicit) memory

Procedural memory (how to), associative learning (conditioning), and non associative learning (habituation and sensitization)

14

Involved in conditioned responses between two stimuli

Cerebellum

15

What is less likely to be modified due to reconsolidation?

Strong, older memories

16

Patient HM cause of surgery

Severe temporal lobe epilepsy

17

Involved in habituation and sensitization

Reflex pathways

18

Has unlimited capacity and lasts indefinitely

Long term memory

19

Presynaptic differences in long term potentiation

More vesicles

20

Part of the brain involved with naming animals but not tools

Brocas area and left medial occipital lobe

21

Long term potentiation as a memory mechanism

Strongest link we have to memory formation. Associativity, cooperativity, and persistence

22

Parts of declarative (explicit) memory

Semantic (facts) and episodic (what happened)

23

What is contained in working memory?

A central executive, phonological loops, episodic buffers, and visuospatial sketchpads

24

What happens to most info that hits sensory memory?

It is forgotten

25

What two parts of the brain support the central executive in working memory?

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex

26

What are long lasting memories?

Stories we all have and like to tell that strengthen over time but aren't as accurate. Strongest memories as time goes on

27

What do a little and a lot of stress cause?

Little = boosted performance
Lot = reduced performance

28

What are the possible underlying changes that cause healthy aging of memory?

White matter deterioration, poor sleep quality, and difficulty clearing adenosine

29

What does memory retrieval stimulate?

Same consolidation processes responsible for original learning

30

Patient HM retrograde effect

Gradual episodic amnesia to about 10 years. More impaired closer to surgery

31

Production of proteins by RNA

Translation

32

Extraordinary episodic recall associated with larger amygdala volume and greater amygdala to hippocampus connectivity

Hyperthymesia

33

Levels or cortisol and helpfulness/harmfulness

A little is helpful and a lot negatively impacts cognitive function

34

Involved in encoding and consolidation of memories and long term potentiation

Glutamate

35

What leads to hypersensitivity to stressors?

Dendritic changes in the amygdala

36

How can info stay in short term memory longer?

Rehearsal

37

What is the contemporary (new/improved) thinking of models of memory?

Formation of memory trace involves hippocampus and cerebral cortex simultaneously and ability to recall memory shifts from hippocampus to cortex

38

Patient HM anterograde effect

Complete amnesia for episodic memories

39

What are the two important areas often studied in the hippocampus?

Area CA and area CA3

40

What do amnesia patients show compared to normal adults on items on list recall

Less primacy effect and less overall. Similar in recency effect

41

What is a phonological loop?

Remembering words. Working memory

42

Electrical activity differences in long term potentiation

Higher electrical activity

43

Patient HM implicit memory effect

No impairment, procedural in tact and could learn new skills

44

What may fail as dementia develops?

Compensation

45

What is the hippocampus important in for memory and not as important in for memory?

More important for short term memory and less critical for later recall

46

Anterior cingulate cortex and working memory capacity

Small activation accompanies maintenance rehearsal and large activation accompanies semantic (elaborate) rehearsal

47

Inability to encode new memories from our experiences

Anterograde

48

Involved in specific personal experiences from a particular time and place

Hippocampus

49

What is a visuospatial sketchpad?

Remembering an image. Working memory

50

What does stress effecting the medial prefrontal cortex cause?

Reversible atrophy of dendrites and less responsiveness under stressful conditions

51

What parts of memory are separable in memory with stress?

Episodic and emotional components

52

What happens when the thalamus or mammillary bodies are lesioned?

Patients show amnesia

53

Calcium levels continue to increase. The spine is enlarged. Lasts about 15-20 minutes

Stabilization required (stage 2 or synaptic strengthening)

54

What is true of memories we have the most confidence in?

They aren't always the most accurate

55

Copying of DNA to RNA

Transcription

56

What do AMPA receptors cause?

Mg2+ to leave NMDA receptors

57

What happens to info unrelated to the stressful situation?

It is suppressed. Stressful times get the focus

58

Loss of memories from our past

Retrograde

59

What does stress trigger the release of?

Epinephrine from the adrenal glands into the circulation

60

Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory parts

Sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory

61

What healthy changes occur in healthy aging of memory?

Slower eyeblink conditioning, slower rxn time, working memory decline, and formation of new episodic memories declines

62

Steps of long term potentiation

1.) Apply weak stimulus
2.) Apply strong stimulus
3.) Apply rapid shocks
4.) Apply weak stimulus again

63

Operates over a few seconds, temporary storage, manipulates info, and focuses attention

Working memory

64

Short term memory capacity

7+ or - 2 (5-9)

65

How is the striatum involved in procedural memories?

Match procedures to context and likelihood of reward. Thinking about what fingers do when playing a song.

66

What is the Hebb rule?

Neurons that fire together wire together

67

What happens to synapses when info is retrieved

They are weakened

68

What provides a basis for learning and memory through the application of a rapid series of electrical shocks to input pathways increasing the postsynaptic potentials in their target neurons?

Long term potentiation

69

What does repeated exposure to similar events cause in semantic and episodic memory?

Strengthens semantic memory and weakens episodic memory

70

Why is a hippocampal slice beneficial in looking at long term potentiation?

You can look at some circuits and not all of them together

71

What is the gateway to the hippocampus that allows the whole brain to access the hippocampus through?

Entorhinal cortex

72

4 steps of stress effecting memory

1.) Epinephrine binds to vagus nerve which reports to the locus coeruleus via the nucleus of the solitary tract
2.) The locus coeruleus released norepinephrine
3.) Norepinephrine in the amygdala and hippocampus enhances memory formation
4.) Epinephrine produces glucose release from liver, supporting signal cascades required for memory formation

73

Process of forming a physical representation of a memory

Storage/consolidation

74

What can excessive amounts of glutamate cause?

Neuronal damage

75

Do NE or glucocorticoids levels return to normal first?

NE

76

What do 2 synapses instead of one increase?

The likelihood of activation

77

What is working memory? Where is it?

Manipulating info in some sort of way. In short term memory

78

This enhances hippocampal activity in emotional memories

Amygdala

79

Involved in world knowledge, object knowledge, language knowledge, and conceptual priming

Cortex

80

Patient HM long term memory effect

No episodic impairment for childhood

81

What do NE levels returning to normal initiate?

Shift to a memory storage state

82

Effects of stress on memory

Reduced hippocampal volume and medial prefrontal cortex

83

What does reconsolidation do?

Updates memory to include ongoing info at time of retrieval

84

Impacted parts of patient HM brain

Bilateral medial temporal lobe, hippocampus, and amygdala

85

What is the hippocampal formation made up of?

Hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, parahippocampal gyrus, and entorhinal cortex

86

What are the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex important in?

Object permanence

87

Involved in motor and cognitive skills

Basal ganglia

88

What do the stress induced actions of NE and glucocorticoids in the amygdala initiate?

A memory formation state in the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the caudate nucleus

89

When is linked to alcoholism and amnestic confabulatory (Korsakoffs) neurocognitive disorder?

Thalamus and mammillary bodies

90

Interferes with both long term potentiation and spatial memory acquisition

NMDA antagonist (APV)

91

What happens when glutamate is blocked?

Memory receptors are blocked

92

Hippocampus inputs and outputs

Hippocampus to entorhinal cortex to perihinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex to frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and cingulate cortices. Works bi-directionally, feedback to cortex

93

What remains the same in aging?

Cognitive measures (intelligence)

94

What happens with electrical activity in delay cells?

Increased electrical activity in delay cells and it goes away with a response

95

What is the traditional (old/outdated) thinking of models of memory?

Short term memories held in hippocampus, memories transferred to cortex and memories erased from hippocampus

96

Areas of the brain involved with naming tools but not animals

Left premotor area and left middle temporal gyrus

97

What is an episodic buffer?

Relating info to life that nobody else can do. Working memory

98

This occurs in waves over time

Consolidation

99

What does retrieving a memory do?

Makes it vulnerable

100

What are Loftus and reconstructive memories involved in?

Reconsolidation

101

High amounts of this are helpful in encoding

ACh

102

What do at risk adults for AD show?

Increased hippocampal activity during encoding. Having to work harder for same amount of result

103

Postsynaptic differences in long term potentiation

More Ca2+. More receptors

104

What is a similar phenomenon to long term potentiation that produces reduced responses

Long term depression

105

What do glucocorticoids initiate?

Changes in gene expression

106

How does info get from sensory memory to short term memory?

Attention

107

This is activated during effortful attempts at retrieval

Prefrontal cortex

108

What does reduced hippocampal volume cause?

Reversible atrophy of dendrites and reduced neurogenesis

109

What is role of transcription factors in memory consolidation?

Importance of CREB (cAMP response element binding protein)

110

What is anisomycin?

Protein synthesis inhibitor

111

How does memory get from short term memory to long term memory?

Encoding

112

What makes up the striatum (basal ganglia)?

Caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens

113

What type of info is more likely to be remembered over?

Highly arousing, negative info is more likely to be remembered than non-arousing, positive info

114

4 stages of synaptic strengthening

Generation, stabilization required, consolidation required, and maintenance

115

Calcium enters the postsynaptic area. Additional AMPA receptors are inserted. Lasts about 1 minute

Generation (stage 1 of synaptic strengthening)