Genetics and Brain Development Flashcards Preview

Psych 3313 > Genetics and Brain Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Genetics and Brain Development Deck (161)
Loading flashcards...
1

Spinal bifida

Neural tube disorder that causes the bottom of the spinal cord to not close

2

Embryonic brain regions of the hindbrain

Mesencephalon and myelencephalon

3

Where does myelination start and where does it lead to?

Occurs in the rostral direction starting with the spinal cord, then hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

4

What does blue light do in optogenetics?

Activates on opsin called channelrhodopsin to allow positive ions in the neuron for firing of the neuron

5

Examples of sex-linked characteristics?

Hemophilia and color blindness

6

Characteristics of the candidate gene approach

hypothesis driven, confirmatory, systematic scanning

7

What is neurogenesis?

Formation of neurons and glia from stem cells

8

How many mutations are in the average new born?

Around 130 new mutations with most having little to no effect

9

How are genes arranged?

Linearly on chromosomes

10

Genetic disorders

Fragile-X syndrome, phenylketonuria (PKU), down syndrome

11

When does plasticity occur?

Growth and development, learning: long term potentiation and enriched environments, following injury (limited), and possibly adult neurogenesis

12

What happens with synapses in people with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's?

Too few synapses in schizophrenia and normal in Alzheimer's until older age when there are far too few

13

What is cell migration?

Cells in the cerebral cortex arrive in an inside-out fashion

14

What does retroviral gene therapy do?

A virus enters a host cell and the virus inserts its DNA into the host's DNA. The cell makes virus genes and proteins as it reads its own DNA.

15

How many genes are in the human genome?

about 23,000

16

What happens during differentiation in the dorsal-ventral axis?

Neurons are distinguished between sensory and motor

17

Where are progenitor cells found?

The ventricular zone lining the neural tube

18

What is a genotype?

A person's 23 pairs of chromosomes

19

Example of a CNV

Huntington's disease. Too many copies of a gene, specifically too many CAG repeats.

20

Abnormalities in synaptogenesis and neurocognitive disorders

Schizophrenia has less connections. Autism has a lot of immature spines

21

How do growth cones form synapses?

Growth cones approach muscle fibers, they make contact, and synaptic vesicles accumulate in axon terminal and synaptic receptors cluster at point of contact

22

What has to be taken into account when assessing heritability?

Environment

23

What does a heritability value of 0 represent?

Genes play no role in phenotypical differences. Ex - environmental toxin exposure

24

What is plasticity?

They nervous systems ability to change

25

How many pairs of autosomes?

22

26

What is histone modification?

Epigenetics. DNA may unwrap or be stopped from unwrapping from the histone

27

What is a gene?

Segment of DNA that produces a single protein

28

What are alleles?

Different versions of a gene

29

What is the mesoderm?

Middle germ layer that becomes connective tissue such as ligaments, muscles, blood vessels, and urogenital system

30

Down syndrome

Genetic disorder caused by extra chromosome