Flashcards in Emotions Deck (68)
Damage causes inability to plan and organize, leading to poor decision making (impulsive)
May impact muscle tone in lower face on one side
Is implicit or explicit deception detection better?
What two pathways control facial expression?
Voluntary and spontaneous/involuntary
Contributes to social behavior. Damage may be implicated in sociopathy
Anterior cingulate cortex
What do patients with amygdala problems show that many autism patients show?
Difficulty figuring out emotions from facial expressions. Focus their eyes on the nose and not between eyes
Contains benzodiazepine (GABA) receptors (anxiolytics)
What cant Parkinsons patients show very well and why?
Joy. They have damage to their basal ganglia which impairs the spontaneous pathway of expression
More active brain areas during truth
Inferior parietal lobe
James-lange theory pathway
Thalamus to limbic system to bodily reaction to cortex
Examples of universality of emotions
Major expressions same across diverse cultures. Stranger anxiety at same age (9 months). Blind infants and sighted infants exhibit emotional expressions at the same time (2 months)
Receives only contralateral input
Lower 2/3 of face
Damage here produces emotional disturbance
How are specific emotions located in the brain?
Widespread areas of the brain are associated with specific emotions
What are the 2 continuum's emotion lies on?
Valence and arousal
Physiological arousal contributes to emotions intensity, while identity of emotion is based on cognitive appraisal
Schachter-Singer Two Factor theory of emotion
Measure of sweat gland activation, sympathetic nervous system activity
More active brain areas during lies
Inferior and medial frontal gyrus
Associated with disgust and pain
High activity in people with anxiety disorders
Anterior cingulate cortex
This hemisphere plays a greater role in expression and perception of emotion
What does Yerkes-Dodson law say?
There is an optimal level of arousal that leads to the greatest performance. Like music being used to hype up or calm down before a game to hit that level
When is the amygdala more active?
When viewing facial expressions of fear
Action before emotion. Our emotional reaction is determined by our interpretation of the physical response
Lesion of amygdala
Difficulty identifying fear and anger
Damage to these causes individuals to not respond emotionally to poor choices. No regret for poor choice
Orbitofrontal and ventromedial cortexes in the PFC
Positive or negative emotions. Good and want more or bad and want less
Kluver-bucy syndrome that affects this area causing reduced fear
What improves the ability to detect deceit?
Feeling threatened. High stakes.
How does music influence arousal?
Music can be used to hype up or calm down in order to reach optimum arousal
Environmental influences on emotion
Presence of others influences intensity of emotional expression
Damage causes apathy and loss of initiative or drive
What can single brain regions do in emotion?
Participate in more than one emotional state
Basal ganglia involved. Duchenne smile
Spontaneous/involuntary pathway of expression
What does sweat tell us?
If there is an emotional response or not
Specific pattern of autonomic arousal leads to specific emotions. Changes in body lead to changes in emotion
James-Lange theory of emotion
This hemisphere is involved in avoidance
What is significant about the PFC?
It has many inputs and outputs
What is the gambling task?
Anticipating the bad deck and sweating in anticipation. Emotional responsivity
What is the output to behavior in the limbic system?
6 primary emotions
Disgust, fear, joy, sadness, anger, and surprise
Controls the superficial muscles attached to the skin of the face
Cranial nerve VII (Facial)
Distinguishes between positive and negative stimuli
What does deception cause?
It has high cognitive costs and arousal produces physical clues of deceit
Controls deep muscles attached to the bones of the head
Cranial nerve V (Trigeminal)
Individual differences in emotion
Overall level of reactivity differs and temperament
Schachter-singer theory pathway
Cortex to thalamus and limbic system to bodily reaction back to cortex. Early cortical activation
What do areas of the brain associated with different emotions do?
How are all of our emotions made?
A combination of primary emotions
Involved in fear conditioning
What are trusting people poorer at?
Produces different patterns of arousal during different emotional states
Autonomic nervous system
How does damage to the frontal lobe (orbitofrontal and ventromedial cortexes) influences the skin-conductance response?
The damage patients showed little to no sweat response
This hemisphere is involved in approach
Conscious, cognitive appraisals of threat
Anterior cingulate cortex
Strong belief a loved one has been replaced by identical imposter. Caused by visual recognition with no emotional connection. No SCR, no arousal
Where are the nuclei of the cranial nerves that control facial expressions?
Pons near the midline
When does the ANS have a stronger response?
What is the Duchenne smile?
Genuine smile. Smile with eyes
How were areas active during lies and truths found?
Key structures of the limbic system
Cingulate gyrus, anterior thalamus, hippocampal formation, amygdala, mamillothalamic tract, hypothalamus
What does the facial feedback hypothesis say?
Certain facial expressions send signals to the brain that can help lift a mood
Receives bilateral input
Upper 1/3 of face
Damage causes inability to experience and express emotions and to recognize emotions expressions of others
Sensation + solve = emotion. Physical arousal caused by stimulus is labeled and associated with an emotion we then feel
Contralateral motor cortices involved (right or left). Forced or fake smile
Voluntary pathway of expression
Level of emotions. High and intense or low and calm