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Flashcards in Emotions Deck (68)
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1

Damage causes inability to plan and organize, leading to poor decision making (impulsive)

PFC

2

May impact muscle tone in lower face on one side

Hemispheric stroke

3

Is implicit or explicit deception detection better?

Implicit

4

What two pathways control facial expression?

Voluntary and spontaneous/involuntary

5

Contributes to social behavior. Damage may be implicated in sociopathy

Anterior cingulate cortex

6

What do patients with amygdala problems show that many autism patients show?

Difficulty figuring out emotions from facial expressions. Focus their eyes on the nose and not between eyes

7

Contains benzodiazepine (GABA) receptors (anxiolytics)

Amygdala

8

What cant Parkinsons patients show very well and why?

Joy. They have damage to their basal ganglia which impairs the spontaneous pathway of expression

9

More active brain areas during truth

Inferior parietal lobe

10

James-lange theory pathway

Thalamus to limbic system to bodily reaction to cortex

11

Examples of universality of emotions

Major expressions same across diverse cultures. Stranger anxiety at same age (9 months). Blind infants and sighted infants exhibit emotional expressions at the same time (2 months)

12

Receives only contralateral input

Lower 2/3 of face

13

Damage here produces emotional disturbance

Frontal lobe

14

How are specific emotions located in the brain?

Widespread areas of the brain are associated with specific emotions

15

What are the 2 continuum's emotion lies on?

Valence and arousal

16

Physiological arousal contributes to emotions intensity, while identity of emotion is based on cognitive appraisal

Schachter-Singer Two Factor theory of emotion

17

Measure of sweat gland activation, sympathetic nervous system activity

Skin-condunctance response

18

More active brain areas during lies

Inferior and medial frontal gyrus

19

Associated with disgust and pain

Insula

20

High activity in people with anxiety disorders

Anterior cingulate cortex

21

This hemisphere plays a greater role in expression and perception of emotion

Right

22

What does Yerkes-Dodson law say?

There is an optimal level of arousal that leads to the greatest performance. Like music being used to hype up or calm down before a game to hit that level

23

When is the amygdala more active?

When viewing facial expressions of fear

24

Action before emotion. Our emotional reaction is determined by our interpretation of the physical response

James-Lange theory

25

Lesion of amygdala

Difficulty identifying fear and anger

26

Damage to these causes individuals to not respond emotionally to poor choices. No regret for poor choice

Orbitofrontal and ventromedial cortexes in the PFC

27

Positive or negative emotions. Good and want more or bad and want less

Valence

28

Kluver-bucy syndrome that affects this area causing reduced fear

Amygdala

29

What improves the ability to detect deceit?

Feeling threatened. High stakes.

30

How does music influence arousal?

Music can be used to hype up or calm down in order to reach optimum arousal

31

Environmental influences on emotion

Presence of others influences intensity of emotional expression

32

Damage causes apathy and loss of initiative or drive

PFC

33

What can single brain regions do in emotion?

Participate in more than one emotional state

34

Basal ganglia involved. Duchenne smile

Spontaneous/involuntary pathway of expression

35

What does sweat tell us?

If there is an emotional response or not

36

Specific pattern of autonomic arousal leads to specific emotions. Changes in body lead to changes in emotion

James-Lange theory of emotion

37

This hemisphere is involved in avoidance

Right

38

What is significant about the PFC?

It has many inputs and outputs

39

What is the gambling task?

Anticipating the bad deck and sweating in anticipation. Emotional responsivity

40

What is the output to behavior in the limbic system?

Hypothalamus

41

6 primary emotions

Disgust, fear, joy, sadness, anger, and surprise

42

Controls the superficial muscles attached to the skin of the face

Cranial nerve VII (Facial)

43

Distinguishes between positive and negative stimuli

Insula

44

What does deception cause?

It has high cognitive costs and arousal produces physical clues of deceit

45

Controls deep muscles attached to the bones of the head

Cranial nerve V (Trigeminal)

46

Individual differences in emotion

Overall level of reactivity differs and temperament

47

Schachter-singer theory pathway

Cortex to thalamus and limbic system to bodily reaction back to cortex. Early cortical activation

48

What do areas of the brain associated with different emotions do?

Overlap

49

How are all of our emotions made?

A combination of primary emotions

50

Involved in fear conditioning

Amygdala

51

What are trusting people poorer at?

Detecting deceit

52

Produces different patterns of arousal during different emotional states

Autonomic nervous system

53

How does damage to the frontal lobe (orbitofrontal and ventromedial cortexes) influences the skin-conductance response?

The damage patients showed little to no sweat response

54

This hemisphere is involved in approach

Left

55

Conscious, cognitive appraisals of threat

Anterior cingulate cortex

56

Strong belief a loved one has been replaced by identical imposter. Caused by visual recognition with no emotional connection. No SCR, no arousal

Capgras delusion

57

Where are the nuclei of the cranial nerves that control facial expressions?

Pons near the midline

58

When does the ANS have a stronger response?

Negative states

59

What is the Duchenne smile?

Genuine smile. Smile with eyes

60

How were areas active during lies and truths found?

fMRI

61

Key structures of the limbic system

Cingulate gyrus, anterior thalamus, hippocampal formation, amygdala, mamillothalamic tract, hypothalamus

62

What does the facial feedback hypothesis say?

Certain facial expressions send signals to the brain that can help lift a mood

63

Receives bilateral input

Upper 1/3 of face

64

Damage causes inability to experience and express emotions and to recognize emotions expressions of others

PFC

65

Sensation + solve = emotion. Physical arousal caused by stimulus is labeled and associated with an emotion we then feel

Schachter-Singer theory

66

Contralateral motor cortices involved (right or left). Forced or fake smile

Voluntary pathway of expression

67

Level of emotions. High and intense or low and calm

Arousal

68

Stimulation of amygdala

Produces fear and anxiety