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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Practice Questions Deck (21)
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1

What is the essence of science?

The essence of science is its way of thinking, which combines rationalism and empiricism.

2

How can a scientist practice science while sitting under a tree?

Science is a way of thinking, and it is possible to think scientifically anywhere.

3

What is meant by a prepared mind in science?

A prepared mind refers to the ability to recognise and react to unexpected findings because the person a sufficient background in, and understanding of, the phenomena under study.

4

What are some of the major characteristics of scientists?

Scientists are pervasive skeptics who challenge accepted wisdom, are intellectually excited by questions and are willing to tolerate uncertainty.

5

What do art and science have in common?

Scientists and artists share curiosity, creativity, scepticism, tolerance for ambiguity, commitment to hard work, and systematic thinking.

6

What are the common methods of acquiring knowledge?

The common methods of acquiring knowledge are tenacity, intuition, authority, rationalism, empiricism and science.

7

Which two methods does science incorporate?

Science combines empiricism and rationalism.

8

What is naive empiricism?

Native empiricism insists on experiencing evidence directly through the sense.

9

What is sophisticated empiricism?

Sophisticated empiricism allows indirect evidence of phenomena, such as the effects of gravity on falling objects.

10

What are the limitations of rationalism?

The limitation of rationalism is that the premises must be correct for the conclusions to be correct.

11

What are the limitations of empiricism?

The limitation of empiricism is that it does little more than collect facts.

12

What are the facts of science?

Facts are empirically observed events.

13

How did the early practical skills of artisans contribute to modern science?

The early practical skills of artisans illustrated the advantage of abstract information in solving everyday problems, thus justifying the kind of scientific study that seeks to systematically develop such information.

14

What contribution did Thales make to science?

He considered the father of science rejected mysticism and studied natural phenomena using empirical observation and rational thought.

15

What was the relationship between science and theology during the middle ages?

During the middle ages, sicence was used to support theological ideas.

16

Distinguish between modern technology and modern science.

Modern technology is the practical application of scientific discoveries, whereas modern science is a way of thinking about and studying phenomena.



17

What is the orderliness belief, and what does it have to do with science?

The orderliness belief is the idea that the universe operate in a lawful manner. Without this belief, it would make no sense to engage in scientific observation, because there would be no general principles to discover.

18

What was Galileo put under arrest?

Galileo was arrested for the crime of blasphemy for accepting the model that said that the Earth and the planets resolved around the sun.

19

What were some of the more influential schools of psychology?

Structuralism, functionalis, psychoanalysis, gestalt psychology, behaviourism, humanistic psychology and cognitive psychology.

20

What is the nature of modern mainstream psychology?

Modern mainstream psychology tends to be integrative in that its theories and ideas cut across several perspectives.

21

Why is it critical that psychology be scientific and objective?

Psychology needs to be scientific and objective because the subjective impressions of people about psychological events tend to be undependable.