Flashcards in Chapter 11 Glossary Deck (25)
What is ABA reversal design?
Single-subject design in which the effects of an independent variable are inferred from observations made first without the independent variable present, then with the independent variable present. and again without the independent variable present.
What is baseline period?
Time from initial monitoring of target behaviour until the start of the manipulation.
What is between sum of squares?
A generic term that usually refers to the between-conditions sum of squares in a repeated-measures ANOVA , but may also refer to the between-groups sum of squares in an ANOVA.
What is between-conditions sum of squares?
The sum of squares used in a repeated measures ANOVA to compute the between-conditions variance, which is also known as the between-conditions mean square.
What are carryover effects?
When participants' involvement in one condition affects their performance in subsequent conditions.
What is counterbalancing?
Control for sequence effects. With complete counterbalancing, all possible arrangements of conditions are included.
What is experimental analysis of behaviour?
Procedures for the controlled study of single individuals, which are based on B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning concepts.
What is latin square design?
A counterbalancing procedure that identifies a set of orders that ensures that every condition appears equally often in every position.
What is multiple baseline design?
A single-subject research design in which several behaviour are monitored, and treatments are applied at different times for each behaviour.
What is negative practice effect?
A decrement of performance due to previous exposure of participants to the measurement procedures.
What is neuropsychology?
A field that studies the relationships of brain functioning to behaviour.
What is partial counterbalancing?
Control procedure in which the order of presentation of conditions is randomly selected for each participant.
What are positive practice effects?
Enhancement of performance that results from previous exposure to the measurement procedure.
What are practice effects?
Any change in performance that results from previous exposure to the measurement procedure.
What is random order of presentation?
A way of controlling for carryover effects, in which the order of the conditions is randomly determined for each participant.
What is randomising within blocks?
A control procedure to reduce sequence effects, which involves using a block of one trial from each condition and randomising participant assignment to these conditions before going on to the next block.
What is repeated-measures ANOVA?
Statistical procedure to evaluate mean differences between conditions in a within-subjects design.
What are repeated-measures design?
Any research design in which participants appear in all conditions.
What is single-subject clinical replication?
A specialised form of replication for single-subject designs, which is used primarily to clinical settings.
What is single-subject direct replication?
Repeating a single-subject experimenter with the same participant or other participants and with the same target behaviour.
What is single-subject experimental designs?
Designs that seek information from studying single subjects.
What is single-subject systematic replication?
Testing for generalisation of a procedure to other conditions, persons, and target behaviours.
What is single-subject, randomised, time series design?
Design in which multiple measures of the dependent variable are taken both before and after a manipulation for a single individual.
What are subjects term?
The individual differences component of the within-groups variability in a repeated-measures ANOVA.