Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (65)
What are the two main purposes of statistical procedures?
1) Describing the results of a study.
2) Helping us understand the meaning of those results
Without statistics, what would we gain from studies?
Are statistical procedures and research design closely related?
Will two individuals respond in exactly the same manner?
No two individuals will respond in exactly the same manner and statistical procedures depend on variability between participants.
What does the variation between each person show?
What descriptive and inferential statistics provide?
What do descriptive statistics do?
Descriptive statistics summarise, simplify and describe such large sets of measurements.
What do inferential statistics do?
Inferential statistics help us interept what the data means.
What does statistcial simplication involve?
Stastical simplication involves computing frequencies.
What is frequency?
Frequency is the number of participants that fall into each category.
What do we arrange frequencies into?
What do frequency distributions show>
Frequency distributions show the frequency in each category.
What is cross tabulation useful for?
Cross tabulation is a useful way to categorise participants based on more them one variable at the same time.
What can cross tabulation help with?
Cross tabulation can help the researcher see relationships between nominal measures.
What is the easiest way to represent score data?
The simplest way to organise a set of score data is to create a frequency distribution.
What does group frequency distribution do?
A group frequency distribution reduces the table to a more manageable size by grouping the scores into intervals.
When is group frequency distribution required?
A grouped frequency distribution is required with a continuous variable in which there are treoretically infinite number of possible scores.
What can graphs do?
Graphs can clarify a data set by presenting the data visually.
What do most people find easier to understand than statistical procedures?
What are excellent supplements to statistical analyses?
Graphs and tables.
How are the two ways we can represent frequency of grouped frequency distribution?
Historgram and frequency polygon.
What do both histograms and frequency polygon do?
Represent data on a two-dimensional graph.
What is the x axis also called?
What does the x axis represent?
This represents the range of scores of the variable.
What is the y axis also called?
What does the y axis represent?
The Y axis represents the frequency of the score.
What is the common shape for systematic distribution?
Bell shaped curve.
What is a bell shaped curve?
This is where most of the participants are near the middle of the distributions and the right and left sides are mirror images.
What are skewed dostributions?
Skewed distributions are where the score piles up on each end of the distrubutions.