Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (48)
What are the assumptions of science?
True, physical universe exists.
Universe is essentially orderly.
The principles that define the functioning of the universe can be discovered.
All ideas are tentative, potentially changed by new information.
What do the basic assumptions of science do?
Form the basis of all scientific thinking.
What are observation and inference based on?
Based on empirical observation and rational abstraction we create understanding.
What are facts?
Events that can be observed
What are most facts of psychology?
What are constructs inferred from?
What is a reitification of a construct?
Incorrectly believing it is fact.
What is inductive thinking?
From the specific instance to the general theory.
What is a deductive reasoning?
from the general theory to predict specific instances
How does science develop theory?
It develops theories through inductive logic.
How does science test theories?
Tests theories by generating predictions through deductive logic and empirically verifying those predictions, observation regarding those predictions are then used to….
And so on… it’s a process of enquiry.
What's a theory?
A simplified framework for explaining complex phenomena.
A scientfic theory must be both?
Testable and falsiable
What is the role of theories?
Theories organize data and help predict new data; they provide us with direction.
What are the three ways to evaluate theories?
Validity, parisomony and usefulness
What is validity?
Accuracy of the theory in predicting outcomes.
What is parsimony?
Simple theories are preferred.
What is usefulness?
The value of the theory for practical problem solving.
What are the four types of theories?
Inductive theories, deductive theories
E.g., Skinner’s conditioning theories.
Models: ‘Mini-theories’. An analogical representation of reality – it represents reality, does not replicate it.
What are inductive theories built on?
built on strong data base and tend to stay close to the data.
What are deductive theories built on?
logically derived rather than derived from the data.
What are examples of inductive theories?
Skinner's conditioning theories
What is an example of a deductive theory?
Meehl’s (1962, 1990) theory of schizophrenia – no data at that time to support his contention.
What are functional theories?
about equal emphasis on inductive and deductive processes.
What are model theories?
‘Mini-theories’. An analogical representation of reality – it represents reality, does not replicate it.
What is a model?
Model: A simplified representation of the real thing.
What is a model used to conceptualise?
It is used to conceptualize phenomena that are too complex to understand in their entirety.
What increases the chance a model will be useful?
The closer a model is to reality, the more likely that it will be useful.
What is the two dimensional model of research involve?
Phases of research and levels of constraint.