Flashcards in Chapter 4 Practice Questions Deck (31):

1

## What is measurement?

### Measurement is assigning numbers to represent the level of a variable.

2

## What happens without accurate measurement?

### Without accurate measurement, we cannot be confident of the accuracy of the conclusions of our research.

3

## What are the properties of abstract number systems?

### The properties of abstract number systems are identity, magntide, equal intrvals and true zero.

4

## What are nominal scales?

### Nominal scales are naming scales.

5

## What are ordinal scales?

### Order phenomena based on their magnitude.

6

## What are interval scales?

### Interval scales convey information about both order and the distance between values.

7

## What are ratio scales?

### Ratio scales provide the best match to the number scale.

8

## What type of data to nominal scales produce?

### Nominal scale produce nominal or categorical data.

9

## What type of data do ordinal scales produce?

### Ordinal data

10

## What type of data do interval and ration data produce?

### Score data.

11

## What property do nominal scales have?

### Property of identity.

12

## What property do ordinal scale have?

### Properties of identity and magnitude

13

## Wgat property do interval scales have?

### identity, magnitude and equal intervals

14

## Wga properties do ratio scales have?

### Identity, magntitude, equal intervals and a true zero point.

15

## What is a true zero point?

### A true zero means that zero on the scale represents a zero level of property being measured.

16

## What does it mean when a scale has a true zero point?

### Taking the ration of two measures on the scale provides a meaningful number.

17

## What is the best way to minimise measurement error?

### It is to develop well thought out operational definitions and follow thm exactly

18

## How do operational definitions transform theoretical variables into concrete events?

### By stating precisely how these variables should be measured.

19

## What is social desirability?

### It is the participant's tendency to respond in what they believe to be the most socially accepted manner. Such response tendencies distort measures and therefore threaten the validity of research.

20

## What is converfent validity?

### It involves multiple lines of research converging on the same conclusions, which increases confidence that the phenonmenon is consistient.

21

## What is reliability?

### Reliability refers to the constancy of a measure.

22

## What are the types of reliability?

### Interrater reliabiluty, test-retest reliability and internal consistency

23

## Can measures be reliable without be valid?

### Yes

24

## Can measures be valid without being reliable?

### No

25

## What happens if the effective range of the scale is inaqeduate?

### The data will be distorted.

26

## When do floor effects occur?

### They occur when scores bunch at the bottom of the scale.

27

## When do ceiling effects occur?

### They occur when scores bunch at the top of the scale.

28

## How does reliability refer to a measure?

### Consitsnecy of a measure.

29

## How does validity refer to a measure?

### Accuracy of a measrue.

30

## Why may a researcher be tempted to fabricate data?

### Personal, financial or political gain.

31