Flashcards in Chapter 4 Practice Questions Deck (31):
What is measurement?
Measurement is assigning numbers to represent the level of a variable.
What happens without accurate measurement?
Without accurate measurement, we cannot be confident of the accuracy of the conclusions of our research.
What are the properties of abstract number systems?
The properties of abstract number systems are identity, magntide, equal intrvals and true zero.
What are nominal scales?
Nominal scales are naming scales.
What are ordinal scales?
Order phenomena based on their magnitude.
What are interval scales?
Interval scales convey information about both order and the distance between values.
What are ratio scales?
Ratio scales provide the best match to the number scale.
What type of data to nominal scales produce?
Nominal scale produce nominal or categorical data.
What type of data do ordinal scales produce?
What type of data do interval and ration data produce?
What property do nominal scales have?
Property of identity.
What property do ordinal scale have?
Properties of identity and magnitude
Wgat property do interval scales have?
identity, magnitude and equal intervals
Wga properties do ratio scales have?
Identity, magntitude, equal intervals and a true zero point.
What is a true zero point?
A true zero means that zero on the scale represents a zero level of property being measured.
What does it mean when a scale has a true zero point?
Taking the ration of two measures on the scale provides a meaningful number.
What is the best way to minimise measurement error?
It is to develop well thought out operational definitions and follow thm exactly
How do operational definitions transform theoretical variables into concrete events?
By stating precisely how these variables should be measured.
What is social desirability?
It is the participant's tendency to respond in what they believe to be the most socially accepted manner. Such response tendencies distort measures and therefore threaten the validity of research.
What is converfent validity?
It involves multiple lines of research converging on the same conclusions, which increases confidence that the phenonmenon is consistient.
What is reliability?
Reliability refers to the constancy of a measure.
What are the types of reliability?
Interrater reliabiluty, test-retest reliability and internal consistency
Can measures be reliable without be valid?
Can measures be valid without being reliable?
What happens if the effective range of the scale is inaqeduate?
The data will be distorted.
When do floor effects occur?
They occur when scores bunch at the bottom of the scale.
When do ceiling effects occur?
They occur when scores bunch at the top of the scale.
How does reliability refer to a measure?
Consitsnecy of a measure.
How does validity refer to a measure?
Accuracy of a measrue.
Why may a researcher be tempted to fabricate data?
Personal, financial or political gain.