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Flashcards in Formative Multiple Choice Questions Deck (35)
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1

Where can scientific theory be conducted?

Anywhere

2

What is one observation of empiricism?

Observations may not be representative.

3

What is one problem with using rationalism to obtain knowledge?

The premises may not be true.

4

Believing in something because the President tells you it is true is an example of ...

Authority

5

Why are models useful?

They represent reality, they help us to organize knowledge and they help us to understand something that can be complex.

6

A theory is often judged on the basis of ...

how useful it is in organizing the data.

7

The scale of measurement that is called the naming scale is the ..

nominal scale.

8

What is science characterised by?

A combination of induction and deduction.

9

Is age a construct?

No

10

Is the ego a construct?

Yes

11

Is intelligence a construct?

Yes

12

Is gravity a construct?

Yes

13

Statistical procedures that help determine the statistical significance of the observations are performed during...

The data-analysis phase

14

Measurements by ranked categories, such as class rankings or academic grades (A, B, C, D, F), provide examples of

An ordinal scale

15

According to Stevens' (1946) classification, the four scales of measurement are...

nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

16

The lowest level of measurement is represented by the ________ scale.

Norminal

17

A researcher measures student's attitudes towards test-taking in the following way: 1-fun; 2-very fun; 3-extremely fun. This is an example of a(n) ________ scale of measurement.

Ordinal.

18

Most psychological theories are ...

Functional theories based on induction and deduction.

19

Both ordinal and interval scales have in common the mathematical properties of ...

identity and magnitude.

20

The data produced by nominal scales are called ?

Categorical data

21

If a researcher uses inferred constructs as a basis on which to make a prediction about new and specific observations, he or she is engaging in...

Deductive reasoning

22

The differences between values or categories in nominal scales are ...

Qualitative

23

Which of the following participant characteristics can be directly observed in scientific research?

Sex of the participant

24

Which variable can be directly manipulated by the experimenter?

The independent variable

25

The differences between consecutive values in ratio scales are...

at equal intervals

26

A researcher measures some participants on a measure that required concentration in a loud and distracting environment and others in a quiet environment. The researcher does not find the predicted relationship between performance on this measure and IQ. If you assume that such a relationship exists in reality, the failure to find it in this study may be due to...

Measurement error

27

Which type of reliability would provide an index of the stability of a variable?

Test-retest reliability

28

________ is a process of formulating specific questions and then finding answers in order to better understand nature

Scientific research.

29

Low-constraint research is particularly relevant if a scientist is ...

Breaking new grounds in research.

30

What is a constraint?

A variable that does not vary.