Flashcards in Chapter 2 Practice Questions Deck (18)
What is data in psychology?
The data in psychology are observations of behaviours.
How do facts and constructs differ?
Facts are directly observed, whereas constructs are inferences are unseen mechanisms, drawn to explain observations.
What is reification of a construct?
Reitification of a construct means believing that construct is fact.
Explain the two ways in which constructs relate to facts?
Constructs are based on facts and used to predict new facts.
What are the basic assumptions that scienticists accept about the universe?
Science is built on the following assumptions: a true, physical universe exists, the universe is primarily an orderly system, the principles of this orderly universe can be discovered, particularly through scientific research and knowledge of the universe is always incomplete. New knowledge should alter current ideas and theories. Therefore all knowledge and theories are tentative.
What is the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning?
Going from empirical observations to constructs is inductive reasoning; going from constructs to predictions is deductive reasoning.
What is a theory, and how is it useful in science?
A theory is a formalised set of concepts that summarises and organises observations and inferences provides tentative explanations for phenomena and provides the foundation for making predictions.
What is the difference between inductive and deductive theories?
Inductive theories depend heavily on empirical observations, whereas deductive theories go well beyond the existing data and encourage the testing of new predictions from theories.
What is a model and how is it used in science?
A model is a miniature representation of reality. Scientists construct and examine models to provide insights into natural phenomena.
Distinguish between observations and inference.
Observations are the facts of research, whereas inferences are inductive leaps beyond the observations.
Why should we judge theories on both their usefulness and their accuracy?
Many techinally incorrect theories make correct predictions in many situations and therefore are useful in those situations.
What is it meant by falsifiability in science?
Falsiability is the principle that, for a theory to be scientfiic, there must be some evidence that, if found, would lead to a rejection of a theory.
What are the two main dimensions of the model of research presented in this section?
The two main dimensions of our model of research are levels of constraint and phases of research.
Name the phases of research.
The phases of research are idea generation, problem definition, procedures and design, observation, data analysis, interpretation and communication.
Define levels of constraint.
Levels of constraint refer to a continuum of demands on the adequacy of information and the level of control used during the obervation phase.
What are the major differences between differential and experimental research?
The groups in differential research are naturally occuring, whereas the groups in experimental research are formed through random assignment.
In which phase of research do we need to consider ethical issues?
Ethical issues need to be anticipated and addressed in the procedures-design phase before proceeding any further in the research. We must also remain sensitive to ethical issues throughout the research.