Flashcards in Chapter 3 Practice Questions Deck (18):
What are the main sources of research questions?
The main sources of research questions are your own interests and the research of other investigators.
How do you distinguish between applied and basic research?
Applied research is designed to solve specific problems, whereas basic research is interested in finding new knowledge, without a specific application.
What is a variable?
A variable is any set of events that may have different values.
How can basic research be valuable in solving practical problems?
Basic research often provides an understanding of natural phenomean, which can later be used to address practical problems.
What is meant by translational research?
Translational research is basic research conducted with an eventual goal of translating the information into applied uses.
Define independent and dependent variables. How do investigators use them in research?
The independent variable is he variable that the researcher manipulates, and the dependent variable is the variable that the research measures and expects will change as a result of the independent-variable manipulation.
Define manipulated and nonmanipulated independent variables.
Manipulated independent variables are actively controlled by the researcher, whereas non manipulated independent variables are defined by preexisting characteristics of participants.
What does it mean to hold a variable constant in research?
Holding a variable constant involves preventing the variable from varying.
What are extravenous variables?
Extraneous variables are uncontrolled factors that can affect the outcome of a study.
Why must we control extravenous variables in research?
Uncontrolled extravenous variables can distort research findings.
What is validity?
Validity refers to how well a study, procedure, or measure does what it supposed to do.
What controls do we have with validity?
Controls reduce the effects of extravenous variables and thus increase our confidence in the validity of the research findings.
What is informed consent?
It refers to a person agreement to partcipate in a study after being fully informed about the study and its risks.
How is informed consent obtained?
It is obtained in writing.
Why is informed consent important?
It is important because it addresses moral issues about violating people's rights by giving people a choice of whether they will participate in a study.
What are the institutional research boards and what do they do?
They are groups set up at university, hospital and research centres to screen research proposals for risks and ethical safeguards.
What are the major ethical principles applicable to research with animals?
Animals cannot give informed consent, and the research carried out on animals is often more invasive than that carried out on humans.