Flashcards in Chapter 7 Glossary Deck (26)
What are achieval records?
Any data source for events that have already occured.
What is casual inference?
Concluding that the change in the independent variable resulted in a change in the dependent variable. It may be drawn only if all confounding variables are controlled.
What is coding data?
Process by which scores are assigned to behaviours.
What is content analysis?
Classifying behaviours found in naturalistic research or archival records to create date for analysis.
What is contingency?
A relationship between two or more variables, in which the first event is predictive of a second event.
What is ethology?
The study of organisms in their natural enviornment.
What is an ex post facto fallacy?
Error in reasoning in which we assume that the observed relationship between current and repoorted historical events represents
What is experimenter bias?
Biasing effects produced by the expectations of the researcher.
What is experimenter reactivity?
Any action by the researcher, other than the independent variable manipulation, that tends to influence participants' responses.
What is exploratory research?
Low-constraint research designed to investigate feasibility and to generate, rather than test, hypotheses.
What is field research?
Research conducted outside the laboratory.
What is generalisability?
Extent to which research findings are applicable to the outside world.
What is generalise?
To assume that the findings of a study will be found for other participants or in other settings.
What is habituation?
A process in which organisms gradually reduce their attention and their responsiveness to any stimulus that is routunely present.
What is measurement reactivity?
Any effect on participant's behaviour that results from the participant being aware that they are being observed.
What is narrative data?
Verbal descriptions of activities, events or internal feelings rather than quantitative measures.
What is nonreactive measures?
Any dependent measure that provides consistient and accurate scores, even when the participant is aware of being measured.
What is participant observer?
Any researcher gathering data while being an active part of the setting.
What is qualitative research method?
A research approach seeks to understand psychological operations by observing the broad pattern of variables.
What is reactive measure?
Any measurement procedure that produces different scores depending on whether participants are aware that they are being measured.
What is representativeness?
Degree to which a sample reflects population characteristics.
What is sampling?
Process of drawing a sample from a population.
What is scienticist-practioner model?
A model for the training of clinical psychologists, which teaches research and clincial skills in an integrated manner.
What is selective survival?
The phenomenon in which some stored records are maintained while others are lost due to unknown factors.
What is unobtrusive measure?
Any measure that can be used without the participants being aware that they are being observed.