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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Practice Questions Deck (26)
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How can preparation of the research setting improve internal validity?

Careful prepartion of the setting can reduce the presence of confounding variables and thus increasing internal validity.


What characteristics should a research manipulate possess?

All measures used in research should be both reliable and valid.


What is exact replication?

Repeating the study exactly as it was carried out originally.


What is systematic replication?

Testing a theoretical or procedural modification of the original procedure that will produce desired reslts only of the original findings were accurate.


What is conceptual replication?

Generating and testing different research hypotheses from the same problem.


What are blind procedures?

Blind procedures keep the participants and researchers unaware of to what condition each participant is assigned.


What is automation?

Automation standardises instructions and/or data collection, thus decreasing opprtunities for experimenter effects.


What is objective measurement?

Objective measurement takes the subjective component out of measurement.


What do multiple observers allow?

Multiple obseres allow an assessment of the reliability of these measures.


What does deception allow?

Deception prevents participants from seeing the purpose of the study and thus reduces ptential subject effects.


What should researchers do to the research setting to maximise external validity?

External validity can be enehanced by making the laboratory situation as natural as possible.


How do single blind and double blind procedures differ?

The researcher is blind to the group assignment, whereas in the double blind procedure, both the researcher and the particpants are blind to group assignment.


How is deception used for control?

Deception reduces subject effects by preventing participants from recognising what is being studied.


What ethical issues does deception raise?

Deception is considered to automatically place participants at risk.


What is the general population?

The general population is the large group of all persons.


What is the accessible population?

The accessible population is the population available to the researcher.


What is the target population?

Target population is the subset in which the researcher is ultimately interested.


What is sample?

The sample is a group drawn from the accessible population.


Why is it important that we draw sample carefully from a population?

Unless samples are drawn carefully, they are unlikely to be representative of the population and reducing generalisabiluty.


What does random sampling involve?

Random sampling involves drawing a sample so that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.


What does stratified random sampling?

Stratified random sampling involves drawing seperate random samples from each of several subpopulations.


What are ad hoc samples?

Ad hoc samples are drawn from accessible populations.


What does matching participants control?

Matching controls for individual differences.


What does unbiased assignment of participants to groups accomplish?

Unbiased assignment to groups makes it unlikely that the groups will differ on any variables other than the indepdent variable.


What are some limitations of debriefing?

Even when properly used, debriefing might not be sufficient to correct the distress of some participants upon learning they had been deceived.


What safeguards should you employ if deception is used in research?

This is to avoid any procedure that may cause physical or emotional harm and use a debriefing to explain the procedure and to remove any misconceptions that might upset the participants.