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What is field esearch?

Generally observing naturally occurring behaviours in their nature conditions, in the field.


What are the low constraint field research methods?

Lower-Constraint Methods
Naturalistic observation.
Archival research (made in natural settings).
Case studies (observations of individual(s)).


Are lower constraint research methods the easy way out?



What do lower constraint research methods involve?

Involves observation of participants in their natural surroundings.


Can it be difficult to observe behaviour in its natural setting?



Do we know what behaviours are important?

Often we do not until observations begin.


What can occur without the controls of the laboratory?

Without the controls of the laboratory, participants are free to do what they want to do, and not what we are hoping to observe.


Why Use Observation as a Method of Enquiry?

Assesses behavior directly.
Not dependent on self report.
Can remove distortion of data due to social desirability bias.


What does naturalistic observation involve?

Trying to observe participants in their natural setting (non-reactive).
Ideally without the participants knowing.
Distance – both physical and psychological.


How do we ontain objective data from observal research?

Distance – too close or too distant?
Different observers may code the same behavior differently.
Cohens kappa of inter judge reliability.


What are the problems with observational research?

Observer's skills.
Real or ‘show’ behaviors?
Experimenter bias.
Reliability of coding / objectivity.
Can be difficult to replicate (participant observation).
Often is not representative.
Risk of going beyond the data.
Ex post facto fallacy.


What are ex posto facto design?

Ex post facto design = Nonexperiemental design in which the current situation is observed and related to reports of previous events.


What is the ex post facto fallacy

Interpreting an observed contingency as if it represented a causal connection:
Low-constraint observation will never provide the controls for such strong conclusions.