Flashcards in Week 9 Lecture Deck (21)
Do controls counteract threats to validity?
Why do we need to control threats to validity?
So we can be confident in our conclusions.
What are the threats to validity?
Confounding variables, unrepresentative samples, inappropriate statistical tests or violations of statistics assumptions and subject and experimenter effects.
What are the general control procedures for preparation of a setting?
Free of distractions that might interfere.
A natural setting increases external validity.
What is the general control procedure for response measurement?
Use reliable and valid measures.
Is replication universally considered to be a control procedure?
Not universally considered to be a control procedure.
Demonstrates that findings are consistent and robust.
What does replication demonstrate?
It demonstrates that findings are consistent and robust.
What is exact replication?
Repeating a study using identical procedures to the original (why do this?).
What is systematic replication?
Using a theoretical or procedural change.
What is conceptual replication?
Varying the operational definitions of the variables to get new research hypotheses.
Asking the research question in different ways.
What are blind procedures best for?
Best control for expectancy effects.
What are single blind?
The experimenter does not know what condition the participant is in.
What are double blind?
Neither the experimenter nor the participant knows what condition the participant is in.
What does automation do?
Reduces contact between participants and the experimenter and gives the experimenter less opportunity to affect participants.
What does multiple observers do?
Reduces bias because it challenges observers to be as objective as possible.
What is deception?
Hides purpose of the study from participants.
Can you generalise only if your sample is representative?
What is the general population?
All potential participants.
What is the target population?
Those participants you are interested in.
What is the accessible population?
The portion of target population that is available to the researcher.