Flashcards in Chapter 9 Glossary Deck (34):
What is accessible population?
The subset of a target population that is available to the researcher and from which the subset is drawn.
What is ad hoc sample?
Sample of participants drawn from an accessible population. The ad hoc sample should be described to define the limits of generalsiability.
What is automation?
Use of equipment to present stimuli and record participants' responses. Automation increases precision in data gathering and minimises experimenter bias.
What is balanced placebo design?
A 2x2 factorial design developed in alcohol research in which the factors are 1) what the partciipants consume and 2) what the participants are told they are consuming. This design seperates the pharmological and expectation affects of alcohol.
What is base rate?
Naturally occuring frequency of an event or condition.
What is blind?
When the researcher and/or participant are unaware of information that may bias their responses.
What is conceptual replication?
Repeating a study using different operational definition.
What is a control group?
A group of participants that serves as a basis of comparison for other groups. The ideal control group is similar to the experimental group on all variables except the independent variable that defines the group.
What is control?
Control in research.
What is deception?
Procedures used in research to hide the true nature of the study. Ethical use of deception requires complete debriefing at the end of the study.
What is double blind procedure?
Research procedure in which neither the researcher nor the particpants know to which condition the participant. was assigned.
What is exact replication?
Repeating a study by using exactly the same procedure used in the original study.
What is experimental design?
In experimental design, participants are randomly assigned to groups and ll appropriate control procedures are used.
What is experimental group?
Groups defined by a specified level of the independent variable.
What is free random assignment?
Assigning participants to groups so that the assignment of any given participant has no effect on the assignment of any other participant.
What is general population?
A defined set of objects or events.
What is kappa?
Index of interrater agreement that adjusts for chance agreement.
What is matched random assignment?
Experimental procedure in which participants are matched on relevant variables and a set of matched individuals is randomly assigned so that one member of the set appears in each of the conditions of the study.
What is objective measure?
Any measure that requires little or no judgement on the part of the person making the measurement.
What is participant assignment?
Assigning participants to conditions either randomly or on the basis of preexisting variables.
What is participant selection?
Participant used to select participants for a research study.
What is percent agreement?
A measure of interrater reliability in which the percentage of times that the raters agree is computed.
What is placebo?
An inert treatment that appears identical to the experimental treatment.
What is the principle of initial equivalence?
The necessity of having experimental groups equal on the dependent measure before any manipulation occurs.
What is random sampling?
Procedure for selecting participants in which each participant has an equal chance of being selected and the selection of any one participant does not affect the probability of selecting any other participant.
What is randomising within blocks?
A control procedure to reduce sequence, which involves using a block of one trial from each condition and randomising participant assignment to these conditions before going on to the next block.
What is random-number generator?
Computer program that generates random sequences of numbers.
What is representative sample?
Sample of participants that adequately reflects the characteristics of the population.
What is a single blind procedure?
Research procedure in which the researcher is unaware of the condition to which each participant is assigned.
What is statistically equal?
Groups are statistically equal when the small diferrences that do exist are the result of sampling error.
What is stratified random sampling?
Sampling in which a population is divided into narrow strata, and participants are selected randomly from each strata.
What is systematic replication?
Repeating a study with small, theory-based procedural changes.
What is a table of random numbers?
A table containing randomly generated numbers.