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1

Science research is more than a way of thinking. It is more?

• Formalised
• Deliberate
• Systematic
• Accurate
• Reliable

2

What is science built on?

Science is built on assumptions. Assumptions are ideas that are tentatively accepted as being true without further examination.

3

What are assumptions?

Assumptions are ideas that are tentatively accepted as being true without further explanation.

4

What basic assumptions do all scientific disciplines share about nature?

1. A physical universe exists
2. There is randomness and thus unpredictability in the universe, but it is primarily an order and predictable system.
3. We can discover the principles of this orderly universe through scientific research.
4. Knowledge of the universe is always incomplete.

5

At a minimum, scientific research involves what?

1. Posing a question
2. Developing procedures to answer the question
3. Making empirical observations
4. Rationally interpreting the empirical observations
5. Using those interepretations to predict other events
6. Communicating the research findings


6

What do scienticists interweave to have a coherent understanding of phenomena?

Empirical observation and rational abstraction

7

What do scienticists refer to empirical observations as?

Collecting data

8

What are facts?

Facts are those events that we can observe directly and repeatedly.

9

What are facts in psychology?

In psychology facts include:
• The physiological structure of participants
• The physical conditions around them
• The behaviour of other organisms
What are most facts in psychology?

What phenomenon do psychologists study that cant be directly observed?

10

What are most facts in psychology?

Behaviours.

11

What is observation?

Observation is the empirical process of using one’s own senses to recognise and record facts.

12

What phenomenon do psychologists study that can't be directly observed?

Emotion, intelligence, creativity and memory.

13

What is an inference?

An inference is an intellectual process in which we draw conclusions from observed from observed facts or from other ideas.




14

What is an inference largely drawn from?

Empirical obserbations.

15

Can we draw inferences from other inferences?

Yes

16

What is a reitification of a construct?

Confusing a construct for a fact.

17

What is the nominal fallacy?

Nominal fallacy is when people mistake the naming of phenomena for an explanation of the phenomena.

18

What is the all-or-none bias?

The All-or-none bias is the tendency to see a statement as either true or false, when in most cases in science the statement is probalistics.

19

What is the similarity-uniqueness paradox?

Similarity-uniqueness paradox is the tendency to view two things as either similar to one another or different to another when they are probably both.

20

What is a barnum statement?

Barnum statement are statements that appear to be true about an issue when in fact they are nothing more than statements that are true for almost all situations, issues or people.

21

What is the evaluative biases of languages?

Evaluative biases of languages is that language often inserts subtle judgements into the descriptions into the descriptions of objective behaviour.

22

When do you use inductive reasoning?

When we move from the particular to the general we are using inductive reasoning.

23

When do you use deductive reasoning?

When we move use the more abstract and general ideas and return to specifics we are using deductive reasoning.

24

What is a theory?

A theory is a formalised set of concepts that summarises and organises observation and inferences, provides tentative explanations for phenomena and provides the bases for making predictions.

25

For a theory to be scientific what does it have to be?

Testable

26

What are good theories?

Good theories are functional, stron, parsimonious and valid.

27

What are strong theories?

A strong theory makes specific productions that scientists can confirm or disconfirm through empirical observation.

28

What is a parasimous theory?

A parasimous theory is relatively simple and straightforward.

29

What is a single theory?

A single theory explains multiple different phenomena is preferred over multiple theories.

30

Does a good theory need to be valid?

Yes