Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (59):
Science research is more than a way of thinking. It is more?
What is science built on?
Science is built on assumptions. Assumptions are ideas that are tentatively accepted as being true without further examination.
What are assumptions?
Assumptions are ideas that are tentatively accepted as being true without further explanation.
What basic assumptions do all scientific disciplines share about nature?
1. A physical universe exists
2. There is randomness and thus unpredictability in the universe, but it is primarily an order and predictable system.
3. We can discover the principles of this orderly universe through scientific research.
4. Knowledge of the universe is always incomplete.
At a minimum, scientific research involves what?
1. Posing a question
2. Developing procedures to answer the question
3. Making empirical observations
4. Rationally interpreting the empirical observations
5. Using those interepretations to predict other events
6. Communicating the research findings
What do scienticists interweave to have a coherent understanding of phenomena?
Empirical observation and rational abstraction
What do scienticists refer to empirical observations as?
What are facts?
Facts are those events that we can observe directly and repeatedly.
What are facts in psychology?
In psychology facts include:
• The physiological structure of participants
• The physical conditions around them
• The behaviour of other organisms
What are most facts in psychology?
What phenomenon do psychologists study that cant be directly observed?
What are most facts in psychology?
What is observation?
Observation is the empirical process of using one’s own senses to recognise and record facts.
What phenomenon do psychologists study that can't be directly observed?
Emotion, intelligence, creativity and memory.
What is an inference?
An inference is an intellectual process in which we draw conclusions from observed from observed facts or from other ideas.
What is an inference largely drawn from?
Can we draw inferences from other inferences?
What is a reitification of a construct?
Confusing a construct for a fact.
What is the nominal fallacy?
Nominal fallacy is when people mistake the naming of phenomena for an explanation of the phenomena.
What is the all-or-none bias?
The All-or-none bias is the tendency to see a statement as either true or false, when in most cases in science the statement is probalistics.
What is the similarity-uniqueness paradox?
Similarity-uniqueness paradox is the tendency to view two things as either similar to one another or different to another when they are probably both.
What is a barnum statement?
Barnum statement are statements that appear to be true about an issue when in fact they are nothing more than statements that are true for almost all situations, issues or people.
What is the evaluative biases of languages?
Evaluative biases of languages is that language often inserts subtle judgements into the descriptions into the descriptions of objective behaviour.
When do you use inductive reasoning?
When we move from the particular to the general we are using inductive reasoning.
When do you use deductive reasoning?
When we move use the more abstract and general ideas and return to specifics we are using deductive reasoning.
What is a theory?
A theory is a formalised set of concepts that summarises and organises observation and inferences, provides tentative explanations for phenomena and provides the bases for making predictions.
For a theory to be scientific what does it have to be?
What are good theories?
Good theories are functional, stron, parsimonious and valid.
What are strong theories?
A strong theory makes specific productions that scientists can confirm or disconfirm through empirical observation.
What is a parasimous theory?
A parasimous theory is relatively simple and straightforward.
What is a single theory?
A single theory explains multiple different phenomena is preferred over multiple theories.
Does a good theory need to be valid?
What is validity?
Validity means that it makes specific testable predictions.
What are inductive theories?
Inductive theories are theories that emphasise induction.
Do inductive theories stay close to empirical data?
Who epitomised the induction theory?
What did BF Skinner base his theoires on?
Extensive observational data
What did Skinner's behavioural theories predict?
They predicted what would happen under a specific set of circumstances.
Did BF Skinner speculate about unseen mental processes?
What are deductive theories?
Deductive theory emphasises deductions from constructs.
Are dectutions hypothesises?
These deductions are hypotheses and these are tested empirically through research.
What are most psychologist theories?
What are functional theories?
Functional theories place approximately equal emphasis on induction and deduction.
What are the shared goals of inductive theories, deductive theories and functional theories?
• Organising knowledge
• Predicting new observations
• Explaining relationships
Can we represent any phenomenon with a model?
What is a model?
It is a miniature representation of reality.
What is a model?
A model is a description or analogy that helps scienticists to understand something usually unseen and/or complex.
Do models duplicate reality?
They represent reality but do not duplicate it.
Why are models useful?
They are useful because they help to organise knowledge and hypotheses about the reality represented by the model.
What are the phases of research?
1. The idea generating phase: Identify a topic of interest to study.
2. Problem-defintion phase: Refine the vague and general ideas generate in the previous step into a precise question.
3. Procedures design phase: Decide on the specific procedures to be used in the gathering and statistical analysis of data.
4. Observation Phase: Use the procedures derived in the design step to collect your observations.
5. Data Analysis Phase: Analyse the data collected using appropriate statistical procedures.
6. Interpretation Phase: Compare your results with the results predicted based on your theory.
7. Communication phase: Prepare a written or oral report of your study for publication or presentation to colleagues.
What do projects with the highest precision demand?
Projects of the highest precision demand the greatest constraint on activities of each phase.
What does level of constraint refer to?
Levels of constraint refer to the degree to which the researcher imposes limits or controls on any part of the research process.
What is naturalistic observation?
Naturalistic observation involves observing particpants in their natural environment.
What should the level of constraint be in naturalistic observation?
The researcher should do nothing to limit or change the environment or the behaviour of the participant.
What is the level of constraint of case study research?
Case study research is moving the participant into a moderately limiting environment, intervening to a slight degree, and observing the participant’s responses.
What is correlational research?
Correlational research is quantifying the strength of the relationship between two variables.
What level off constraint of correlational research?
The researchers must carefully define and precisely follow the measurement procedures.
What is differiental research?
Differiental reseach is comparing two or more pre-existing goups of participants.
What is the level of constraint for differntial research?
The setting is usually highly constrained and the measurement procedures must be carefully defined and precisely followed.
What is experimental research?
Experimental research is assigning participants randomly to groups and then testing each group under a different condition.