Chapter 11 - The Muscular System Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - The Muscular System Notes Deck (104):
1

Lever

(Bone)
- Rigid structure

2

Fulcrum

(Joint)
- Fixed point

3

Muscles (produce what)

- Apply the forces that produce MOVEMENT

4

Basic Muscle Concept

When a muscle contracts (shortens), a force is generated that acts on bones (or surrounding tissues) to create motion

5

Components of typical skeletal muscle

1. Origin
2, Insertion
3. Muscle Belly
4. Tendons

6

Origin

- "Fixed" end; may be called the head of the muscle

7

Insertion

- "Moveable end

8

Muscle Belly

- The largest portion of the muscle. It lies between the origin and insertion

9

Tendons

- Attach muscles to bones

10

Aponeurosis

- (Sheet-like)
- Is a thin, flat tendon located where the muscles attach to large flat regions on the body

11

Synergists

- Muscles working together to cause a movement

12

Agonist

- Prime Mover
- If one muscle in a group does most of the work involved

13

Antagonists

- Muscles that cause a movement opposite that of the synergists
- flexors/extensosr
- adductors/abductors

14

Stabilizers

- Stabilize the joints

15

Number of Muscles Identified

- Over 700
- Averaging just over 3 per every bone

16

Naming Schema for Muscles

1. Origin and Insertion
2. Size
3. Shape
4. Direction of muscle fibers
5. Location
6. Number of Heads
7. Action/Function

17

Naming: Origin & Insertion

- named landmarks found on the bones
- origin is fixed end
- insertion moveable end

18

Naming: Size

1. Maximus
2. Minimus
3. Brevis
4. Major
5. Minor
6. Longus/Longissimus
7. Teres

19

Naming: Shape

1. Triangular
2. Trapezoid
3. Saw-Toothed
4. Rhomboid
5. Round

20

Naming: Direction of Muscle Fibers

1. Rectus: runs parrell to the midline of the body
2. Perpendicular: runs at a right angle to the midline of the body
3. Angle

21

Naming: Location

-May indicate a nearby bone or body region

22

Naming: Number of Heads

- multiple heads or attachments

23

Naming: Action/Function

- Terms such as FLEXOR, EXTENSOR, ABDUCTOR, and ADDUCTOR are all added to muscle names to indicate the kind of movement generated by the muscle.

24

Muscle Shapes

1. Pennate: feather-shaped
2. Parallel: fasciculi run in line w/tendon
3, Convergent: triangle shaped
4. Circular: circle shaped

25

Fascicles

- Muscle fibers are grouped into bundles called Fascicles

26

Levers

- Three classes of levers with respect to skeletal muscle function:
1. Class I - see saw R-F-AF
2. Class II - loaded wheel barrel F - R - AF
3. Class III (most common in the body)
ladder against building - F - AF - R

27

Frontalis

-Forehead
-Raises eye brows, wrinkles forehead

28

Orbicularis oculi

- Around the eyelids
- Closes the eyes

29

Buccinator

- Lines the cheeks
- Compresses cheek

30

Orbicularis oris

- Around the lips
- Purses the lips

31

Zygomaticus

- Upper cheek
- Elevates corner of mouth

32

Depressor Anguli Oris

- Side of the chin
- Depresses corner of the mouth

33

Temporalis

- Side of head above ear
- Elevates mandible

34

Masseter

- Rear of the cheek
- strongest muscle in the jaw
- Elevated mandible

35

SCM

- Side of the neck
- Rotates the neck opposite side, laterally flex same side

36

Platysma

- Side of neck superficial
- Tenses neck, depresses mandible

37

Scalenes

- Deep, side of neck
- Elevated ribs, flexes neck

38

Torticollis

- "pinched nerve" in neck
- Acute spasm of the SCM
- Usually caused by a cervical acceleration - deceleration injury

39

Erector Spinae - Iliocostalis

- Deep posterior trunk muscles
- Extension of the spine

40

Erector Spinae - Longissimus

- Along the back, from head to sacrum
- Extension of the spine

41

Erector Spinae - Spinalis

- ??
- Extension of the Spine

42

Quadratus Lumborum

- Deepest layer of post trunk muscles
- Depress ribs, lateral flex vertebral column

43

Multifidus

- Deep anterior, trunk muscle
- Extends spine, rotates to opposite side

44

Intercostalis

- Between the ribs
- Raises, depresses ribs

45

Diaphragm

- Between thoracic and abdominal cavity
= Expands thoracic cavity

46

Abdominal Obliques (External, Internal, Transverse abdominus)

- The three layers of abs
- Depresses ribs, flexes the spine

47

Rectus Abdominus

- Anterior abdominal wall, ribs to pelvis
- Flexes spine

48

Urethral Sphincter

- Encircles the urethra
- Prevents urine from escaping the urinary system

49

Anal sphincter

- Encircles the anus
- Closes the anus

50

Levator ani

- Forms part of the pelvic floor
- Elevates and retracts the anus

51

Trapezius

- Upper back, back of head and neck, to clavicle and scapula
- Multiple motions of the upper trunk

52

Serratus anterior

- Between ribs and scapula
- Protracts scapula

53

Levator scapulae

- Cervical spine to scapula
- Elevates scapula

54

Rhomboids (major & minor)

- Cervical and thoracic vertebrae to scapula
- Adduct scapula

55

Pectoralis minor

- Ribs to scapula
- Depresses and protracts shoulders

56

Deltoid

- Tip of the should to humerus
- Flex, abduction, extension of humerus

57

Lattisimus dorsi

- Middle of back to humerus
- Extension adduction, med rotation of shoulder

58

Pectoralis major

- Upper chest to humerus
- Flexion, adduction, medial rotation of shoulder

59

Supraspinatus

- Posterior, superior edge of scapula to humerus
- Abduction of shoulder

60

Infraspinatus

- Shoulder blade of scapula to humerus
- Lateral rotation of shoulder

61

Teres minor

- Posterior, inferior edge of scapula to humerus
- Lateral rotation of shoulder

62

Subscapularis

- Anterior scapula to humerus
- Depress, protract the shoulder

63

Teres major

- Posterior, inferior edge to scapula to humerus
- Extensions, adduction, medial rotation of shoulder

64

Coracobrachialis

- Anterior scapula to humerus
- Adduction, flexion of shoulder

65

Biceps brachii

- Anterior surface of arm
- Flexion of elbow, and supination

66

Brachioradialis

- Extends from lower humerus and adjacent forearm to lateral tip of radius
- Flexion of elbow

67

Brachialis

- Deep to the biceps
- Flexion of elbow

68

Triceps brachii

- Posterior surface of arm
- Extension of elbow

69

Supinator

- Anterior proximal ulna superficial
- Pronation of forearm

70

Muscles that Move the Hand and Fingers

1. Flexor carpi muscles
2. Extensor carpi muscles
3. Flexor and extensor digitorum muscles

71

Flexor carpi muscles

- Anterior side of forearm
- Flexion of wrist

72

Extensor carpi muscles

- Posterior side of forearm
- Extension of wrist

73

Flexor and Extensor digitorum muscles

- Anterior and posterior sides of the forearm tendons extending to the bones of the fingers
- Flexion and extension of the digists

74

Retinaculum (wrist)

- a "bracelet" covers the flexor and extensor tendons around the wrist; holding them in place to prevent "bowstringing" during contraction

75

Lateral Epicondylitis

- tennis elbow
- pain originating where the extensor forearm muscles originate on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus

76

Palm

- two "pads" are formed by hand muscles on the anterior palm

77

Thenar Eminence

- located on the radial aspect and is involved with thumb movement

78

Hypothenar Eminence

- located on the ulnar aspect and is involved with pinky movement

79

Gluteus maximus

- Large buttock muscle
- Extension and lateral rotation of the hip

80

Gluteus Minimus

- Under gluteus maximus between hip
- Abduction, medial rotation of the hip

81

Adductors

- Medial (inner) region of the thigh
- Adduction of leg

82

Gracilis

- Medial (inner) region of the thigh
- Flex knee, adduction and medial rotation of the hip

83

Iliopsoas

- Anterior, superior thigh
- Flexion of the hip

84

Tensor fascia latae

- Lateral hip
- Flexion and medial rotation of the hip

85

Piriformis

- Deep gluteal muscle
- Lateral rotation and abduction of hip

86

Groin Pull

- muscular spasm in one or more of the adductor muscles

87

Piriformis syndrome

- A condition where the sciatic nerve is impinged by the piriformis muscle.
- Symptoms include pain and paresthesia in the groin, thigh, or buttock region, and possibly sexual dysfunction

88

Biceps femoris (hamstring)

- Posterior surface of thigh; extends from lower pelvis to tibia and fibula
- Flexion of the knee

89

Semimebranosus

- Posterior surface of thigh; extends from lower pelvis to tibia and fibula
- Flexion of the knee

90

Semitendinosus

- Posterior surface of thigh; extends from lower pelvis to tibia and fibula
- Flexion of the knee

91

Sartorius

- Crosses anterior thigh; extends from pelvis to toe
- Flexion of knee, flexion and lateral rotation of the hip

92

Rectus femoris (quadriceps muscle)

- Anterior surface of thigh; extends from lower pelvis to tibia and fibular
- Extension of the knee

93

Vastus lateralis

- Anterior surface of thigh; extends from lower pelvis to tibia and fibular
- Extension of the knee

94

Vastus medialis

- Anterior surface of thigh; extends from lower pelvis to tibia and fibular
- Extension of the knee

95

Vastus intermedius

- Anterior surface of thigh; extends from lower pelvis to tibia and fibular
- Extension of the knee

96

Quadriceps tendon

- the quadriceps femoris muscles converge onto one tendon which secures the Patella
- After crossing the patella, the tendon is then named the patellar tendon

97

Tibialis anterior

- Anterior and lateral side of tibia; extends to foot
- Dorisflexion of ankle, inversion of foot

98

Gastrocnemius

- Poterior leg ("calf") between femur and heel
- Plantar flexion of ankle, inversion and adduction of the foot, flexion of the knee

99

Pereneus (aka Fibularis)

- Posterior leg; extends from fibula and tibia to heel
- Eversion, and plantar flexion of the foot

100

Soleus

- Posterior leg; extends from fibula and tibia to heel
- Plantar flexion of ankle, adduction of foot

101

Flexor and Extensor digitorum muscles (several)

- Anterior and posterior leg; extends to bone of toe
- Flexion and extension of the toes

102

Calcaneal Tendon (aka Achilles Tendon)

- gastrocnemius and soleus tendons converge to form

103

Rotator Cuff

1. Suprasinatus
2. Infraspinatus
3. Subscapularis
4. Teres minor

104

Aging and Muscular System

1. Skeletal Muscle fibers become smaller in diameter.
2. Skeletal Muscles become less elastic
3. Tolerance for exercise decreases
4. Ability to recover from muscular injuries decreases