Chapter 17 - Sensory Function Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 - Sensory Function Notes Deck (147):
1

How we perceive and respond to our environment is determined by

our ability to sense our environment

2

for the body to perceive a sensation

the NS must have specialized structures to receive/transmit the info to the NS

3

Structures that receive/transmit info to NS

receptors

4

a sensory receptor will detect a stimulus and translate the info into a

action potential

5

after producing an action potential, the info is sent to the

CNS

6

Process by which a sensory receptor will detect a stimulus and translate the info into an action potential, and then send that to the CNS

transduction

7

sensory receptors are the interface between

NS and the internal/external environment of the body

8

What are the general senses

pain
temperature
touch
pressure
vibration
proprioception

9

what are the special senses

olfaction
vision
gustation
equilibrium
hearing

10

the receptors for special senses are _______ than those of the general senses

more complex

11

where are the receptors for special senses located

sense organs

12

special sense receptors are _______ to specific sensations

specific/unique

13

when a stimulus is repeated in the NS a ________ in the sensitivity of a constant stimulus will occur

reduction

14

reduction of a stimulus

adaption

15

adaption reduces the _______ that reaches the CNS

amount of info

16

where are general receptors found

all over the body

17

how many types of general receptors are there

4

18

what are the general receptors

nociceptors
thermoreceptors
mechanoreceptors
chemoreceptors

19

nociceptors

pain receptors

20

nociceptors respond to

tissue damange

21

what neurotransmitter is involved with transmission of pain

substance P

22

what tract is pain transmitted on

spinothalamic tract

23

what fibers is pain carried on

myelinated type A and type C

24

thermoreceptors

temperature receptors

25

where are thermoreceptors located

free nerve endings in the skin, skeletal muscles, and hypothalamus

26

there are _____ more cold receptors than hot receptors

4x

27

thermoreceptors travel on

spinothalamic pathway

28

mechanoreceptors

sensitive to stimuli that distort the cell memebrane of the receptor.

29

how many classes of mechanoreceptors

3

30

what are the classes of mechanoreceptors

tactile
baroreceptors
proprioceptros

31

tactile receptors respond to

touch
pressure
vibration

32

how many receptor types are tactile

6

33

what are the tactile receptors

free nerve endings
root hair plexus
tactile disks (merkel's discs)
meissner's corpuscles
lamellate (pacinian) corpuscles
ruffini corpuscles

34

baroreceptors respond to

changes in blood pressure

35

where are baroreceptors found

wall of blood vessels

36

proprioceptors monitor

positions of joints and muscles

37

examples of proprioceptors

muscle spindles
golgi tendon organs
free nerve endings in the joint capsules

38

chemoreceptors are sensitive to changes

in chemical concentrations of the body

39

what is the most complex of the general senses

proprioceptors

40

olfaction is

sense of smell

41

where is smell perceived

nasal cavity

42

what organ perceives smell in the nasal cavity

paired olfactory organs

43

where are olfactory nerves located

small cilia on the surface of the nasal mucossa

44

the axons of the olfactory pathway travels

through the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone and reaches the olfactory bulbs of the cerebrum. Then to the olfactory cortex on the inferior region of the temporal lobe

45

Does the olfactory info pass through the thalamus prior to going to the cortex for processing?

no. it is the only sense info that doesn't

46

gustation is

sense of taste

47

where are taste receptors found

surface of the tongue

48

which cranial nerves control taste

CN VII, IX, and X

49

CN VII monitors

anterior 2/3 of the tongue

50

CN VII perceives the tastes of

sweet
salty
sour

51

CN IX monitors

posterior 1/3 of the tongue

52

CN IX perceives the tastes of

bitter
"Bitter Back Nine"

53

CN X monitors

epiglottis

54

what are the accessory structures of the eye

eyelids
palpebral fissure
medial canthus
lateral canthus
eye lashes
tarsal or meibomian glands
lacrimal glands
conjunctiva

55

eyelids act as

windshields to clear the surface of the eye and lubricate

56

tarsal//meibomian glands do what

secrete a lipid like substance that prevents eyelids from sticking together

57

where are lacrimal glands located

medial canthi of the eye

58

what do lacrimal glands produce

tears

59

what is the conjunctiva

epithelium that covers the inner surface of the lids and outer surface of the eye

60

the wall of the eye has

3 layers

61

what are the layers of the eye called

tunics

62

what are the 3 layers/tunics of the eye

fibrous
vascular
neural

63

fibrous tunic is the

outermost layer of the eye

64

what does the fibrous tunic contain

sclera and cornea

65

vascular tunic is the

middle layer of the eye

66

what does the vascular tunic contain

blood vessels and lymph vessels

67

what does the vascular tunc include

iris
pupil
ciliary body
choroid

68

what is a ciliary body

thick region of the eye where the iris attaches

69

what is choroid

vascular layer responsible for delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the retina

70

neural tunic is the

retina
innermost layer of the eye

71

what does photoreceptors do

detect light

72

where are photoreceptors located

outer layer

73

how many types of photoreceptors

2

74

what are the photoreceptors

cones and rods

75

rods:

detect light

76

cones:

detect color and light

77

what are responsible for photoreception

cones and rods

78

photoreception is:

the absorption of photons by the visual pigments in the eye.

79

what are the visual pigments

derivatives of the compound rhodopsin

80

what is rhodopsin composed of

protein called ospin and the compound retinal or retinene

81

what is retinal/retinene synthesized from

Vitamin A

82

which are more abundant in the eye - rods or cones

rods

83

what is the optic disc

origin of the optic nerve

84

are there photoreceptors in the optic disk

no
"blind spot"

85

the eye can be divided into _____ cavities and _____ chambers

2
2

86

where are the 2 chambers located in the eye

anterior cavity

87

what are the 2 chambers of eye called

anterior
posterior

88

where is the anterior chamber of the eye located

extends from cornea to the iris

89

where is the posterior chamber of the eye located

extends from the iris to the ciliary body and lens

90

the two chambers of the eye are filled with

a fluid called the aqueous humor

91

aqueous humor is similar to

CSF

92

function of the aqueous humor

circulate nutrients and waste products

93

the posterior cavity of the eye contains

vitreous boy or fluid

94

the vitreous fluid helps

give the eye support and stabilizes the shape of the eye

95

where is the lends located

behind the cornea of the eye

96

function of the lens

focus light on the photoreceptors of the eye

97

the lens refracts light on a

focal point on the retina

98

when the image is refracted onto the retina it is

upside down and backwards

99

when the image arrives at the cortex it is processed into the ______ orientation

correct

100

_______ or _______ is determined from a standard referenced index

clarity of vision/ visual acuity

101

normal acuity is

20/20

102

acuity below _____ is legally blind

20/200

103

_____ are responsible for color vision

cones

104

how many types of cones

3

105

what are the cones

red
blue
green

106

Photoreceptors of the eye pass visual info onto the

optic disc

107

visual info passes the optic disk and continue

down the optic nerve to the optic chiasm

108

When at the optic chiasm half the fibers _________ and the other half _________

cross over to the opposite side
continues on the same side

109

Once past the chiasm, the nuerons travel down

optic tract

110

the optic tract takes neurons where

latreal geniculate bodies

111

From the geniculate bodies, the visual info travels to the

occipital or vidual cortex to be processed

112

the inner ear is a specialized sensory organ with two functions

hearing
balance aka equilibrium

113

the ear is divided into ____ anatomical regions

3

114

what are the regions of the ear

external
middle
inner

115

the external ear consists of ________ visualized around the _______

cartilaginous structures
ear canal

116

the ______ which leads to the eardrum is part of the external ear

external auditory canal

117

eardrum=

tympanic membrane

118

middle ear is called

tympanic cavity

119

the middle ear is filled with

air

120

the middle ear is separated from the external canal by

tympanic membrane

121

the middle ear communicated with the

nasopharynx

122

how does the middle ear communicate with the nasopharynx

auditory tube (Eustaschian tube)

123

the middle ear contains 3 small auditory ossicles or bones

malleus (hammer)
incus (anvil)
stapes (stirrup)

124

vibration of the tympanic membrane causes the inner ear bones to

move and conduct sound to the inner ear

125

inner ear contains

receptors for hearing and balance

126

inner ear receptors are found

in membranous labyrinth

127

membranous labyrinth contains fluid called

endolymph

128

the bony labyrinth contains a fluid similar to CSF called

perilymph

129

the bony labyrinth is divided into 3 structures

vestibule
semicircular canals
cochlea

130

vestibule contains a pair of membranous sacs called

saccule
utricle

131

The receptors in the vestibule respond to changes in

gravity and linear acceleration

132

the semicircular canals respond to changes in

head rotation

133

the receptors in the cochlea provide

sense of hearing

134

hair cells located in _____ and _______ are connected to the vestibular ganglia

vestibule
semicircular ducts

135

the vestibular ganglia are connected to the

cortex

136

the vestibular ganglia provide

control of postural muscles (with regard to changes in position of the body)

137

the vestibular nuclei have 4 functions

integrating sensory info about balance with head movement
relaying vestibular info to the cerebellum
relaying vestibular info to the cortex for the conscious awareness of head position
motor input to the cranial nerves involved with eye, head, neck movements.

138

the _______ tracts send info to the cord to adjust peripheral muscle tone

vertibulospinal

139

hearing is perceived when the ________ of the inner ear bones stimulate the __________

vibrations
perilymph of the cochlea

140

_____ in the cochlea are stimulated and sound is recognized

tiny hair cells

141

the hair cells in the cochlea are located in a structure called the

organ of corti

142

Describe hearing process (6 steps)
Step 1

Sound waves arrive at the tympanic membrane

143

Describe hearing process (6 steps)
Step 2

movement of the membrane causes vibration of the audotory ossicles

144

Describe hearing process (6 steps)
Step 3

movement of the stapes on the oval window creates a pressure wave on the perilymph of the vestibular duct

145

Describe hearing process (6 steps)
Step 4

pressure wave distorts the basilar membrane

146

Describe hearing process (6 steps)
Step 5

vibration of the basilar membrane causes vibration of the hair cells against the tectoral membrane

147

Describe hearing process (6 steps)
Step 6

info regarding the intensity of the sound is relayed to the CNS via the cochlear branch of the CN VIII