Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (45):
1. "Lost Cause"
white southerners romanticized Civil War, looked back at the old south nostalgically, Confederate heroes looked at with reverence.
2. 13th Amendement
abolished slavery in America
3. Freedmen's Bureau
agency of the army established by Congress to help blacks. Distributed food, established schools, and made efforts to settle blacks on their own land. Was a small organization, too much so to have too big of an impact
4. Lincoln's 10% plan
offered amnesty to white southerners, other than high officials of the Confederacy, who would pledge loyalty to the government and accept the elimination of slavery. When 10% of the voters in the state took the oath, loyal voters could set up a state gov't. LA, AK, and TN established gov'ts under this plan
5. Radical Republicans
Led by Thaddeus Stevens of PA and Charles Sumner of MA, wanted Confederacy punished. Wished to disenfranchise many white southerners. Established plan for reconstruction. Passed Tenure of Office Act and Command of the Army Act. Tried to have Johnson impeached
6. Wade-Davis Bill
passed by radicals, authorized the president to appoint a provisional gov't for southern states. When a majority of white males pledged allegiance, the governor could summon a state constitutional convention
7. Pocket Veto
veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
8. Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
killed by John Wilkes booth in Ford's Theatre
9. John Wilkes Booth
assassinated president Lincoln
10. Johnson's Reconstruction plan
offered amnesty to white southerners who would take an oath of allegiance. Otherwise similar to Wade-Davis bill
11. Black Codes
gave whites control over blacks, authorized officials to apprehend unemployed blacks, fine them for vagrancy,
12. Civil Rights Act of 1866
declared blacks to be citizens of the US and gave the federal govt power to intervene on state affairs to protect the rights of citizens
13. 14th Amendment
defined American citizenship. Everyone born in the US and everyone naturalized was a full citizen and entitled to all the privileges guaranteed by the Constitution
14.Three Reconstruction Bills
established a coherent plan for Reconstruction, vetoed by Johnson, overruled. TN admitted for ratifying 14th amendment. other 10 states divided into 5 military districts. Qualified voters defined as all adult blacks males and white males who had not participated in the rebellion.
15. 15th Amendment
gave suffrage to all adult male citizens
16. Tenure of Office Act
forbade the president to remove civil officials, including members of his cabinet, w/o Senate approval. Mainly to protect radical Sec of War Edwin M. Stanton
17. Command of the Military Act
prohibited the president from issuing military orders except through the commanding general of the army (General Grant)
18. Ex Parte Milligan
Court declared military tribunals unconstitutional where civil courts were functioning, lead to Congress to try to require 2/3 of justices to support a decision overruling a law of Congress
19. Impeachment and Acquittal of Johnson
Radicals tried to impeach Johnson for dismissing Stanton and violating Tenure of Office Act. Radicals wanted him out because he stood in the way of his plans. One vote short of 2/3 majority needed
Southern white republicans. Many were former whigs and wealthy, interested in economic development of the region
White northerners that saw the south as a new frontier and full of potential, often middle class
22.Hiram Revels Blanche Bruce
Revels and Bruce were the first two African-American politicians to serve a full term in the United States Senate.
23. "Forty acres and a mule!"
agrarian reform for former enslaved African American farmers
24. sharecropping/tenant farming
landowners rented land to farmers who usually supplied them with farming tools and a crude house, farmers grew crops for landowners and kept a small percentage, often not enough to sell. Farmers lived in poverty as a result.
25. crop-lien system
System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans
26. Election of U.S. Grant
took place in 1868 and Ulysses Simpson Grant
Term coined by senator Charles Sumner in 1872 during a Presidential election year. Accused Grant of political patronage, nepotism, and being an autocrat.
28. Credit Mobilier Scandal
A French railroad construction company that consisted of many of the insiders of the Union Pacific Railway.
29. Panic of 1873
Building of second transcontinental railroad precipitated the Wall Street panic and plunged the economy into a-year depression.
30. Seward's Folly
William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. At the time everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska
31. Ku Klux Klan
the largest, most effective organization of white supremacists that used lynchings, beatings, and threats to control the black population in the United States
32. Enforcement Acts
Prohibited radical anti-black groups and protected the voting rights of African Americans
33. Social Darwinism
that people failed because of their own weaknesses, and encouraged government intervention in social and economic life
34. Election of 1877
Democrat: Samuel Tilden (civil service reformer, former attorney general of NY (bagged Tweed). Republican: Rutherford Hayes (moderate).
35. Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
When the south was returned to Conservative Democratic rule after the Radical Republicans of Reconstruction
37. New South
the south after reconstruction
38. Minstrel shows
shows that involved actors becoming black-faced in order to make a mockery of blacks
39. Convict Lease System
the process of releasing prisoners to work for private companies
40. Booker T. Washington
Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.
41. The Atlanta Compromise
Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice
42. Plessey v. Ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Plessy was made to sit in the black train car because he was an octoroon (1/8 black). Railroad company was on his side because they paid too much to maintain separate cars.
43. Cumming v. County Board of Education
changed the black high school to 4 primary schools in order to provide white students a private school.
44. Jim Crow Laws
were racial segregation laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States