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1

A useful starting point for the study of American political system and its founding

The French and Indian War

2

Key points of French and Indian War?

Colonists identified as British still. The war left Britain in a budget crisis that lead to taxes on colonists.

3

The French and Indian War led to what?

Townshend Act

4

Why did the tax on tea remain in the Townshend Act?

To show Colonists that Britain was still in charge

5

What happened after the "shot heard round the world"?

Colonies called the 1st Continental Congress

6

Result of colonies calling 1st Continental Congress in Sept. 5 1774?

British troops and colonial minutemen engaged at Lexington in Concord ---> Revolutionary War

7

What happened as a result of the 2nd Continental Congress?

Treaty of Paris

8

After Treaty of Paris?

The Declaration of Independence

9

Who wrote Common Sense

Thomas Paine

10

When was the Declaration of Independence signed?

July 4, 1776

11

The Declaration of Independence had a heavy influence from who? What values?

John Locke
republicanism, value of self, property, etc

12

Relatively strong state governments

Articles of Confederation

13

Who was the first president of the United States in congress assembled?

Samuel Huntington

14

Showed that the national government was too weak under the articles of confederation?

Shay's rebellion

15

The constitutional convention of 1787 established? What was it from?

A two chamber congress. The Great Compromise

16

Two chambers but both based on state population James Madison

The Virginia Plan

17

Only one chamber, one state, one vote

The New Jersey Plan

18

The Constitutional convention of 1787 also included what compromise?

Three-fifths compromise

19

Who first ratified the Constitution?

Deleware

20

When did the Constitution become effective? With what ratification?

June 21, 1788. New Hampshire

21

What two states barely passed Constitution?

New York and Virginia

22

The people who signed on and wrote the Consitution

Federalists

23

The people not present and did not support ratification of the Constitution?

Anti- federalists

24

Promised during the campaign of 1788 and ensured all states would accept

Bill of Rights.

25

When did the Constitution become "effective"?

June 21, 1788

26

Before the constitution what experiences did the colonials have with democratic institutions?

English Parliament and colonial charters

27

The "rights of englishmen" included?

Trial by jury

28

What act was repealed before the constitution?

Stamp Act

29

The Declaration of Independence was a call to?

Revolution- liberty, equality, individual rights, self-government, lawful powers

30

The Declaration of Independence used the philosophies of?

John Locke.

31

Two philosophies of John Locke?

1. Inalienable (natural) rights
2. Social contract

32

Government has responsibility to preserve rights

Social contract

33

Who?
"Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"
"All men are created equal"
Just powers derived from the consent of the governed

Thomas Jefferson

34

When were the articles of confederation adopted?

Revolutionary War

35

The Articles of Confederation prohibited Congress from doing what 2 things and created a weak national govt

1. Prohibited Congress from interfering in states' commerce policies
2. Prohibited Congress from taxation

36

What motivated Congress to authorize a convention in Philadelphia to revise Articles of Confederation?

Shays Rebellion

37

Father of the Constitution

James Madison

38

What two questions did James Madison have to answer when framing the Constitution?

1. Congress, how will we elect representatives?
2. Issue of slavery and slave trade

39

- Representation based on population number
- Greater power to larger states

Virginia (large-state) plan

40

- Each state would have one vote
- Equal power to large and small states

New Jersey (small state) plan

41

The Great Compromise, a two-chamber Congress, is set up like what?

- House of Representatives: proportional representation
- Senate: equal representation

42

Three fifths of enslaved population counted for apportionment of taxes and political represenation

Great Compromise

43

Which essays came first? What were the signatures on them?

Anti-federalist papers
- Brutus, Cato

44

What did the federalists sign their papers as?

Publius

45

In the ratification debate, what were the Anti-federalists concerned?

The national government would be too powerful and that state self-government and personal liberty would be at risk

46

Who wrote the Federalists Papers?

Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay

47

The framers goals

- Government strong enough to meet the country's needs
- Government not threatening existence of the separate states
- Government not threatening liberty
- Government based on popular consent

48

- Limit government by stating specific powers in the Constitution
- Total of seventeen powers

Grants of power

49

- Limit government by stating specific prohibitions in the Constitution
- Constitution difficult to amend

Denials of power

50

What did Madison's Federalist No. 10 address?

The problem of overbearing majorities

51

What was the framers' special contribution to using power to offset power?

Separate but overlapping government

52

Separate institutions sharing power

Checks and balances

53

Congress checked by president, Supreme Court

Shared legislative powers

54

President checked by Congress, Supreme Court

Shared executive powers

55

Courts checked by president, Congress

Shared judicial powers

56

- Limits powers of government
- First 10 amendments to Constitution

Bill of Rights

57

Courts determine if governmental institution is acting within its constitutional powers

Judicial Review

58

Who established Judicial Review? From what court case?

Chief Justice John Marshall in Marbury vs. Madison

59

Why did the framers favor a republic over a democracy?

- Framers feared the overbearing power of the majority in a democracy
- Framers preferred the concept of a republic, where people rule through elected representatives
- Majority rule in a republic is limited to protect minority rights

60

Limited popular rule:
- People participate indirectly in the process of government through?
- Indirect election of president through?
- Indirect (initially) election of ?
- Federal judiciary is ?

- Election of officials
- Electoral college
- Election of Senators
- Federal judiciary appointed, not elected

61

Power gained through elections to be exercised in accordance with law and with due respect for individual rights

Constitutional

62

Provides for majority influence via elections

Democratic

63

Mix of deliberative institutions, each of which moderates the power of the others

Republic

64

Who were the founding fathers? (6)

- Washington
- Adams
- Jefferson
- Madison
- Franklin
- Hamilton

65

Commander in chief of continental army from 1775-1783

Washington

66

Washington had what political stance?

Not a member of a political party but supported Federalist ideas

67

First Vice President

Adams

68

Adams:
- Member of what party?
- First?

- Federalist party
- First VP

69

Who wrote Thoughts on Gov't (1776)

Adams

70

What did Adams have to say about the VP post?

"This is the most unimportant position human ever made"

71

VP to Adams?

Jefferson

72

Jefferson:
- Member of what party?
- Wrote what?
- Founded what?

- Democratic-Republican party
- Wrote Declaration of Independence
- Founded UVA

73

"Father of the Constitution"

Madison

74

Madison:
- Wrote what? With what pen name?
- Member of what party?

- The Federalist Papers (Publius)
- Democratic-Republican party

75

Who supported a strong central government?

Hamilton

76

Hamilton:
- Member of what party?
- Wrote?

- Federalist party
- The Federalist Papers

77

Who had a role in electing Jefferson president over Aaron Burr - 12th amendment which resulted in a bitter duel?

Hamilton

78

"All hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately"

Franklin

79

Franklin:
- Ambassador to ?
- Eldest ?

- France
- Statesman