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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Notes Deck (90):
1

This forbids states from denying equal protection to citizens

14th amendment's equal protection clause

2

What did the Browns v. Board of Education of Topeka do?

It banned forced segregation in schools

3

The Supreme Court encouraged what as a solution to segregation?

Busing.

4

Which amendment played a big role in civil rights?

14th amendment

5

Which time period saw more segregation, 1959 or 2009?Why?

2009. Because forced integration caused white flight to suburbs creating substantially black city schools

6

What are the 2 major judicial tests of equal protection?

1. Strict-scrutiny test
2. Reasonable-bias test

7

Suspect category-- assumed unconstitutional in the absence of an overwhelming justification

Strict scrutiny test

8

What is applied to the strict scrutiny test?

Race and ethnicity

9

Loving v. Virginia applied what judicial test of equal protection?

Strict scrutiny test

10

Not suspect category-- assumed constitutional unless no sound rationale for the law can be provided, applies to age, income, etc

Reasonable-bias test

11

What is applied to the reasonable-bias test?

Age, income, etc

12

Why don't 14 year olds have the right to object that they can't buy alcohol until they're 21? (What test is used and why)

Reasonable-bias test
The state has a REASONABLE interest in restricting something based on age

13

Almost suspect-- assumed unconstitutional unless the law serves a clearly compelling and justified purpose

Intermediate scrutiny test

14

What is applied to the intermediate scrutiny test?

Gender

15

Although the government cannot have discriminatory laws on the books, what can't SCOTUS stop?

Private business

16

SCOTUS lack of control with private business and knowing that they have gone about as far as they can go leads to what?

Legislative branch: Congress HAS to look at inequality in society and take action

17

How did Congress take action to combat the inequality through private sectors?

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

18

What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 provide for?

- Public accommodations cannot refuse to serve customers on race
- Most employers cannot refuse to consider applicants based on race

19

The impetus behind the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

The black civil rights movement

20

Rosa parks refusing to give up her seat led to what led by who?

Busing boycott led by Martin Luther King Junior

21

MLKJ led what march?

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

22

What had to deal with prevented entry into segregated high school by Arkansas Governor?

Little Rock Nine

23

What president intervened with the Little Rock Nine situation and how did he intervene?

Dwight D Eisenhower
- Ordered Arkansas National Guard, now under his order because they were called to service, to maintain peace in integration

24

Eisenhower put what decision into practice?

Brown decision

25

- Prevented entry into University of Alabama by Alabama Governor
- JFK Intervention

James Meredith

26

Significant aspect of the James Meredith situation?

Applied the Brown decision to colleges

27

When do federal powers intervene?

To unify the law of the land when local/state governments don't comply

28

Gave a speech on the March on Washington what speech

Martin Luther King Junior
"I have a dream"

29

-Baptist minister
-Southern Christian Leadership conference

Martin Luther King Junior

30

MLK preparing peaceful protest for voting rights. Effort met with resistance and violence ensued, this was?

Bloody Sunday

31

Worked for the black civil rights movement in Chicago (the north)

Jesse Jackson

32

When was MLK assassinated?

April 4, 1968

33

The Civil Rights movement had an enduring impact on the division of what?

Political parties

34

What is the greatest predictor of your political party

What party your mother was in

35

Women acquired the right to vote in what year with what amendment?

1920 with 19th amendment

36

This amendment passed congress but failed ratification a narrow margin of like 3 states

The Equal Rights Amendment

37

Who wrote "A vindication of the Rights of Women" and in what year?

1792
Wollenstonecroft

38

Women's suffrage was achieved when and with what?

1920
19th amendment

39

What effort was made for equal rights by Hispanic Americans?

Farm worker's strikes in 1960s and 1970s, largely for migrant workers rights, most success in California.

40

Who led the Hispanic farmers strikes

Ceasar Chavez

41

When were Native Americans granted citizenship

1924

42

The protests in the 1970s led to what?

Native Americans gaining greater control over their own affairs

43

Native Americans didn't become part of the civil rights movement until 1972 with what

Trail of Broken Treaties

44

In 1968 congress enacted this which gave those on reservations similar constitutional guarantees to Americans

1968 Indian Bill of Rights

45

SCOTUS ruled that placing public school kids who have a primary language that's not english in regular classrooms without special help violates the Civil Rights Act

Lau v. Nichols

46

In the 1940s in reference to voting SCOTUS ruled that what was unconstitutional?

Whites-only primary elections

47

The banning of whites only primary elections in the 1960s led to what 20 years later?

24th Amendment prohibited poll taxes

48

- Allowed federal agents to oversee voter registration
- States prevented from creating election districts that deliberately dilute the minority vote or to give it control

Voting Rights Act of 1965

49

This case weakened the Voting Rights Act of 1965 significantly

Shelby County v. Holder

50

What happened with Shelby Co v. Holder

Invalided part of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 with a formula for determining which states and counties were subject to federal oversight (these formulas were "obsolete statistics")

51

Eliminates the requirement that some states and counties receive federal permission before they can make a change in their voting process

Shelby Co. v. Holder

52

From the 1960s and forward, SCOTUS was very strict on anything that would restrict access to the ballet. What about now?

This trend has reversed in recent years ex: showing picture ID at voting ballots

53

- Addresses discrimination in housing, cant deny housing based on race, religion, ethnicity, sex, etc

The Civil Rights Act of 1968

54

The poll tax what was kind of discrimination?

De facto

55

Redlining is what kind of discrimination?

De jure

56

The Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibits what?

Redlining

57

Is housing segragation better or worse now after the Civil Rights Act of 1968, and why

Worse. Because before redlining was banned blacks couldnt get mortages, the sellers had to drop the prices of their houses because no one was selling them, which led to home value to decrease, which led to the white flight to suburbs, which led to a mainly black and poor area

58

Affirmative action focuses on

"Equality of Result"

59

Social, economic, and cultural bias discrimination

De facto

60

Specific law discrimination

De jure

61

Full and equal opportunities for all in education, employment, etc. Levels the playing field

Affirmative action

62

What were the problems with the Civil Rights Act that led to Affirmative Action

- Put a burden on the minority to prove discrimination and court victories didnt help groups

63

SCOTUS issued 1st affirmative action ruling with this case

University of California Regents v. Bakke

64

What happened with University of California Regents v. Bakke?

White guy rejected by medical school that took preference over minority groups. SCOTUS ruled that the school violated Bakke's right to equal protection because it had a fixed number set aside for minority applicants

65

In this case SCOTUS overturned an earlier ruling that upheld a federal policy that set aside a certain # of federally funded constriction projects for minority owned firms

Adarand v. Pena

66

In Adarand v. Pena, what did SCOTUS decide (after they overturned an earlier policy)

Past discrimination cant justify granting an advantage to a minority owned firm that hasnt been the direct victim of this discrimination

67

What were some of the aftermaths of the civil rights movement for African Americans

- Continuing high disparity in income
- Discrepancies in convictions and sentencing
- High rate of dissolution of black families
- Movement into political office

68

With the deal with Affirmative Action, if, lets say, a college is challenged in court, they must do what?

It is THEIR responsibility to prove their case for the policy to be upheld

69

Placed the issue of affirmative action into the voters hands in the states

Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action

70

What are some job related issues with women?

- lack of job equality
- family leave
- gender pay equality
- sexual harassment

71

This would have given women and men equal pay for jobs that require a similar level of training and education

Comparable worth policies

72

Most single-parent homes are headed by? And how many of these are below the poverty line? Which leads to what concept?

Women ; 1 out of 3
- feminization of poverty

73

US policies towards Native Americans have focused on what

Fostering self government and self-sufficiency. Preserve NA culture

74

Casinos on reservations bring economic opportunities but also controversy, why?

Gaming culture erodes tribal traditions

75

One of the oldest ethnic groups in the US, most immigrants are this or are descendants of this

Hispanic Americans

76

Fastest growing minority in the US, surpassed African Americans as the nation's largest racial/ethnic group

Hispanic Americans

77

About how many Asian Americans?

12 million

78

Asian Americans are the group with the highest median family income because of what factors combined?

- Emphasis on academic achievement
- High % of 2 parent families

79

Asian Americans are an upwardly mobile group, but what?

Significant discrimination hinders then from gaining high-level positions in companies

80

Invalidated state laws banning gay sex

Lawrence v. Texas

81

This was repealed in 2010, gays and lesbians can now serve openly in the armed forces

Don't Ask, Don't Tell

82

In 2013 SCOTUS invalidated part of what act, allowing same-sex couples what?

Defense of Marriage Act
- the same federal benefits as heterosexual couples

83

First state to legalize same sex civil union

Vermont

84

First state to legalize same sex marriage

Massachusetts

85

What age group most supports gay marriage

18-29

86

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects who and not who

Race and minorities
BUT
not the gays

87

These acts prvented discrimination against hiring old people where age wont affect their performance

Age Discrimination Act and Age Discrimination in Employment Act

88

Disability protections, accessibility requirements by the federal government

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

89

Americans high ideals clash with what and we avoid what

Clash with history
- we avoid telling the negative aspects of American history

90

Gunnar Myrdal said discrimination was what

"America's curse"