Pt 2: Chapter 11 Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pt 2: Chapter 11 Notes Deck (76):
1

What is the federal government's total expenditures?

$3.55 trillion ($3,500 billion)

2

The expenditures for the legislative branch?

$7 billion

3

The expenditures for the executive branch?

$7 billion

4

The expenditures for the executive branch?

$3,500 billion

5

What are the 3 big programs that use up a majority of our federal spending (rank them highest to lowest)

1. Social security - 24%
2. Healthcare - 24%
3. Defense Dept - 17%

6

What are the 3 biggest incomes for the federal govt and how are they ranked? (highest to lowest)

1. Individual income - 46%
2. Payroll - 34%
3. Corporate income - 11%

7

What is was the highest ever marginal rate?

94%

8

What is the current highest marginal rate?

35%

9

Lower-income individuals pay a higher rate

Regressive tax

10

Higher-income individuals pay a higher rate

Progressive tax

11

Whats the saying about Congress?

Hate the Congress... Love your congressman

12

Approval/disapproval rating for Yarmuth?

62% approval
26% disapproval

13

Overall Congress approval rating? Disapproval?

15% approve
70% disapprove

14

Over ___ of House incumbents who seek re-election win, the number is just slightly lower for the Senate

95%

15

What are some reasons why House incumbents are likely to get reelected?

- Take care of Constituents
- Fund-raising advantage
- Redistricting

16

Each member of the house represents roughly _____ people

700,000

17

How many members of the Senate?

100 members

18

The Senate is referred to as?

"The Upper House"

19

Qualifications for Senate:
- How old?
- How long a citizen?
- Where should you be from?

- 30 years of age
- US citizen for 9 years
- Inhabit state you represent when elected

20

How many women in Senate? African Americans?

17 women, 1 African American

21

How many members of the house?

435 voting members + 5 non-voting

22

What is the House referred to as?

"The Lower House"

23

Qualifications for the House:
- How old?
- How long a citizen?
- Where should you be from?

- 25 years old
- US citizen for 7 years
- Inhabit state you were elected in

24

Who is our Senator?

Good ole Mitch McConnell

25

Who is the president of the Senate?

Joe Biden

26

Who is our Pro Tempore of the Senate?

Orin Hatch

27

Who is our Speaker of the House?

Its up in the air rn

28

This is when Congressmen work hard to get their share of federal spending projects for their constituents

Pork-barrel spending

29

Responding to their constituents' individual requests. The representative's staff is always ready to assist someone who is seeking information about a gov't program or looking to get a federal benefit.

Service strategy

30

The responsibility for redrawing House election district rests with the respective state legislatures

Redistricting

31

The party that controls the legislature typically redraws the boundaries in a way that favors the candidates of its party

Gerrymandering

32

Senate and house incumbends can fall victim to disruptive issues which are what?

When voters are angry about existing political conditions the incumbents are at greater risk

33

Why is the midterm election a problem to incumbents?

The president's party usually loses House seats during these elections, which is partly due to the drop-off of voter participation in the midterm election because the electorate is much smaller and people who only vote in pres elections have weaker party ties

34

What is the primary election challengers problem with incumbents trying to get reelected?

Those who are moderate usually lose to a strong challenger from the extreme wing of their party b/c extremists are more likely to go out and vote than moderates

35

Senators often find themselves running against who? Threatening their seat

High ranked politicians like governors who have more resources for a strong campaign

36

House incumbents are less likely to face strong challengers why?

Because the seat isnt attractive enough and face appointments who have dont enough money to raise a strong campaign

37

What is the threat of Super PACS to incumbency?

These contribute money fro outside the state or district and target the race by donating money to the challenger. Incumbents barely survive the inflow of money

38

The Speaker of the House is elected by ?

House Membership

39

The Speaker of the House is by default...

a member of the majority party

40

The Speaker of the House is said to be

the second-most-powerful official in Washington

41

The Speaker of the House develops ? and persuades party members in the House to?

Develops the party's opposition on issues and persuades party members in the House to support them

42

What are the formal powers of the Speaker of the House?

The right to speak during the first house debate on legislation and the power to recognize speakers during the debate

43

The Speaker of the House influences...

House Rules Committee

44

This controls the scheduling of bills

House Rules Committee

45

Who is the most powerful senator?

Majority party leader

46

Who presides over the Senate and what does his job include?

VP; Joe Biden
Has power only to cast a tie-breaking vote

47

Who presides over the Senate in the VP's absence?

Senate president Pro tempore

48

This is largely a honorary position held by the majority party's senior member

pro tempore

49

This committee does most of the work in Congress. Permanent and responsible for particular areas of public policy

Standing committee

50

Each standing committee has a ______ with each having a defined jurisidciton

subcommittee

51

Each chamber has one of these committees that handles foreign policy issues, commerce, etc

Senate standing committee

52

Each of these committees has legislative authority in that it can draft and rewrite proposed legislation and can recommend to the full chamber the passage or defeat of the bills it handles

House standing committee

53

A few in Congress that have designated responsibility but, unlike standing ones, do not produce legislation

Select committee

54

Joint committees formed temporarily to work out differences in House and Senate versions of a particular bill

Conference committee

55

This means that bills introduced must be referred to the proper committee

Committee jurisdiction

56

Committee membership looks like what

Mirrors the party ratio of the body

57

Who are the committee chairs?

Typically senior members of the majority party

58

Committees have been described as this

"little legislatures"

59

Why have committees been described as little legislatures?

Each are secure in its jurisdiction and membership, and each wielding considerable influence over the legislation it handles

60

Most work on legislation is done where

In committee

61

From committees to the floor what is defined?

Rules for debate

62

During the leadership and floor action what happens?

Debate, changes to the bill, and vote by the full membership

63

What happens after full membership vote?

Conference committees will work out a compromise version if 2 bills are passed that are similar. After that the president signs or vetos

64

What are the 3 major functions of congress?

Lawmaking, representation, and oversight

65

Congress makes laws doing what

Authorizing federal programs

66

Why would fragmentation being a weakness for Congress?

Limit on Congress' role, the president typically has the more prominent role

67

Why would fragmentation being a strength for Congress?

Ability to deal with narrow problems, but not broad ones, simultaneously

68

The responsibility of a legislature to represent various interests in society

Representative function of congress

69

Representation of states and districts by Congress how?

Will vote in a way that will not antagonize local interests on narrow issues because of reelection needs

70

Representation of the nation through parties is done how?

Congress focuses on the big issues instead of local interests and these clear cut views are defined clearly in each party

71

Congress has the responsibility to see that the executive branch carries out the laws faithfully

Oversight function

72

How is oversight primarily done?

By committees

73

How are committes set up in regards to oversight?

Facilitated by the parallel structure to the executive bureaucracy. Ex: House and Senate judiciary committees oversee the work of the Dept. of Justice

74

T/F: Oversight is constantly pursued and done perfectly

False. too demanding to do adequately

75

What are advantages of Congress?

Culturally representative of a nation and diverse interests are represented

76

Disadvantages of Congress?

National interest is often subjugated to special interests, disproportionate influence of the minority on party interests, and Congress's structure makes it easier to block leg than enact it