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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Notes Deck (50):
1

The systematic study of government and politics, can increase ability to think politically

Political science

2

What are the basis of our national identity?

American ideals

3

Widely shared and deep-seated beliefs of its people about politics

Political culture

4

Thou "shall" or "shalt" not

Normative structure

5

Freedom to act and think as one chooses but no infringement on freedom of others

Liberty

6

All individuals equal in worth, legal treatment, and political voice

Equality

7

People are ultimate source of governing authority

Popular consent

8

People can achieve self sufficiency and material success

Individualism

9

Americans = one people in an invisible Union

Unity

10

Respect for individual and group differences -> national strength

Diversity

11

Value: Individuals should be free to act as they choose
Tradition: Unsettled land fostered freedom through migration, many fled Europe to escape religious persecution

Liberty

12

Value: Government's role is to serve the people
Tradition: Tocqueville: Americans' chief aim is to remain their own masters

Individualism

13

Value: Contrast- European aristocratic privilege versus American equal treatment under the law
Tradition: Perplexing ideal in the early years of the nation- some were free while others were enslaved

Equality

14

Value and tradition: American colonials had substantial self determination
Vision of a nation with powers from the consent of the governed

Self government

15

America's cultural beliefs are?

Idealistic

16

"Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel"

S. Johnson

17

Political conflict develops for what two reasons?

1. Scarcity of resources
2. Competing values

18

Process through which a society settles conflict

Politics

19

To have power, in a government context, means?

To control public policy

20

A course of action followed by the government

Public policy

21

The means by which society settles its conflicts and allocates the resulting benefits and costs

Politics

22

The ability of persons, groups, or institutions to influence political developments

Power

23

Controlled by a small group

Oligarchy

24

Autocracy

Controlled by an individual

25

The preference of special interests largely determine what government does

Pluralism

26

The recognized right of officials to exercise power

Authority

27

Represses opposition through intimidation, restriction of rights, and even imprisonment and physical abuse

Authoritarian government

28

Authority is the recognition of

Power

29

System in which the people govern, by direct or representative means. In practice, majority rule through the free and open election of representatives

Democratic system

30

The majority effective determines what government does

Majoritianism

31

Government ruled by groups, not necessary for the public benefit

Pluralism

32

A well positioned few manipulate the political process

Elitism

33

Power of high level administrators -> policy decisions

Bureaucracy

34

What is America's political system like?

Parts are delet ate
Parts connect with eachother
Parts affect and interact with eachother
Dynamic system, changing as needed

35

What are the 5 overriding tendencies of the American political system?

1. Enduring cultural ideals
2. Fragmentation of governance based on checks and balances
3. Competition between diverse groups
4. Emphasis on individual rights and responsibilities
5. Economic + political decision making separate -> economic issues out of political control

36

A system based on rule of law

Constitutionalism

37

An economic system that centers on the transactions between private parties, empowers business firms and the wealthy

Free market

38

- lays down the files and restricts/defines lawful uses of power
- protects rights of the minority

Constitutionalism

39

3 parts of the constitutional system?

The Constitution, elaborate checks and balances, Bill of Rights

40

Idea that there are lawful restrictions on governments power

Constitutionalism

41

Operates mainly on private transactions. Some government regulation through regulatory, taxing, and spending policies

Free market system

42

Influence firms have over policy makers

Corporate power

43

Power exercised by the influential few

Elitism

44

Government has large regulating role in economy

Socialism

45

Government owns most or all of industry. Well beyond regulation.

Communism

46

Government does not interfere in economy except when necessary

Capitalism

47

Outlined the Social Contract:
- a basis for legitimate political order
- sovereignty in the hands of the people, including the making of laws, opposed to representation

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

48

Key ideas:
-the value of self: human nature characterized by reason and tolerance
- value and property: although limited, the right to accumulate and attain should be vigorously protected
- a right to rebel and replace failing govt

John Locke

49

Wrote Democracy in America:
- balance of liberty and equality: didn't support individualism but believed Am democracy created an opportunity for the coming together for a common purpose

Alexis de Tocqueville

50

Involves the careful gathering and sifting of information to form a knowledgeable view about a political issue. Important for responsible citizenship.

Political thinking