Pt 2: Chapter 13 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pt 2: Chapter 13 Vocab Deck (22):

An official who presides at a trial-like administrative hearing to settle a dispute between an agency and someone adversely affected by a decision of that agency

Administrative law judge


The tendency of bureaucrats to place the interests of their agency ahead of the priorities sought by the president or Congress

Agency point of view


The process through which annual federal spending and revenue determinations are made

Budgetary process


A system of organization and control based on the principles of hierarchical authority, job specialization, and formalized rules



The degree to which bureaucrats are held accountable for the power they exercise

Bureaucratic accountability


The major administrative organizations within the federal executive bureaucracy, each of which is headed by a secretary or, in the case of Justice, the attorney general. Each has responsibility for a major function of the federal government, such as defense, agriculture, or justice

Cabinet (executive) departments


Special interest groups that benefit directly from the activities of a particular bureaucratic agency and therefore are strong advocates of the agency

Clientele groups


The idea what the bureaucracy will be more responsive to the public if its employees at all levels are demographically representative of the population as a whole

Demographic representatives


A basic principle of bureaucracy that refers to the standardized procedures and established regulations by which a bureaucracy conducts its operations

Formalized rules


Governmental bodies, such as the US postal service and Amtrak, that are similar to private corporations in that they charge for their services but differ in that they receive federal funding to help defray expenses. Their directors are appointed by the president with Senate approval

Government corporations


A basic principle of bureaucracy that refers to the chain of command within an organization whereby officials and units have control over those below them

Hierarchical authority


Bureaucratic agencies that are similar to cabinet departments but usually have a narrower area of responsibility. Each such agency is headed by a presidential appointee who is not a cabinet member. An example is NASA

Independent agencies


A basic principle of bureaucracy holding that the responsibilities of each job position should be defined explicitly and that a precise division of labor within the organization should be maintained

Job specialization


An approach to managing the bureaucracy whereby people are appointed to government positions on the basis of either competitive examinations or special qualifications, such as professional training

Merit system


The administrative objective of a merit-based bureaucracy

Neutral competence


An approach to managing the bureaucracy whereby people are appointed to important government positions as a reward for political services they have rendered and because of their partisan loyalty

Patronage system


The primary function of the bureaucracy, it refers to the process of carrying out the authoritative decisions of Congress, the president, and the courts

Policy implementation


Organizations within the bureaucracy that are headed by commissioners appointed by the president. An example is the Commission on Civil Rights

Presidential commissions


Administrative units, such as the Federal Communications Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency,that have responsibility for the monitoring and regulation of ongoing economic activities

Regulatory agencies


Top-level career civil servants who qualify through a competitive process to receive higher salaries than their peers but who can be assigned or transferred by order of the president

Senior Executive Service (SES)


The practice of granting public office to individuals in return for political favors they have rendered.

Spoils system


An internal check on the bureaucracy whereby employees report instances of mismanagement that they observe.