Pt 3: Chapter 8 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pt 3: Chapter 8 Vocab Deck (21):

Election campaigns and other political processes in which candidates, not political parties, have the most of the initiative and influence

Candidate-centered campaigns


The tendency of white women and men to differ in their political attitudes and voting preferences

Gender gap


A political party organized at the level of the voters and dependent on their support for its strength

Grassroots party


Campaign funds given directly to candidates to spend as they choose

Hard money


An institution that serves to connect citizens with government. These include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media

Linkage institution


The theory that parties in a two-party system can maximize their vote by locating themselves at the position of the median voter- the voter whose preferences are exactly in the middle

Median voter theorem


A term used to describe the fact that US campaigns are very expensive and candidates must spend a great amount of time raising funds in order to compete successfully

Money chase


A system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition

Multiparty system


The designation of a particular individual to run as a political party's candidate (its nominee) in the general election



A term of modern campaigning that refers to the process of recasting a candidate's record into an appealing image

Packaging (a candidate)


Election campaigns and other political processes in which political parties, not individual candidates, hold most of the initiative and influence

Party-centered campaign


The groups and interests that support a political party

Party coalition


A process in which conflict over society's goals is transformed by political parties into electoral competition in which the winner gains the right to govern

Party competition


The party organizational units at national, state, and local levels, their influence has decreased over time because of many factors

Party organizations


An election or set of elections in which the electorate responds strongly to an extraordinary powerful issue that has disrupted the established political order. A realignment has a lasting impact on public policy, popular support for the parties, and the composition of the party coalitions.

Party realignment


An electoral system in which the candidate who gets the most votes (the plurality) is an election district is elected to office from that district

Plurality (winner-takes-all) system


An ongoing coalition of interests joined together to try to get their candidates for public office elected under a common label

Political party


A form of election in which voters choose a party's nominees for public office. In most states, eligibility to vote in a primary election is limited to voters who designated themselves as party members when they registered to vote

Primary election (direct primary)


A form of representation in which seats in the legislature are allocated proportionally according to each political party's share of the popular vote. This system enables smaller parties to compete successfully for seats.

Proportional representation system


The form of representation in which only the candidate who gets the most votes in a district wins office

Single-member districts


A system in which only two political parties have a real chance of acquiring control of the government

Two-party system