Flashcards in Chapter 21: Personal and Institutional Robbery Part 1 Deck (47):
What is robbery?
the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or putting the victim in fear
What are the subcategories of robbery?
(1) location of the robbery
(2) type of weapon
(3) type of victim
(4) institutional robberies
When using police data to estimate the prevalence and nature of robbery, what are the sources of definitional ambiguity that need to be considered?
(1) What constitutes a “threat” or “attempted” robbery is subject to diverse interpretation
(2) Variability in how particular police officers and departments make distinction between various types of personal robberies and other types of larceny/theft
(3) The hierarchical rule used in the recording of UCR incidents, counting only the most serious offense in a criminal incident
What establishments specifically have a long history of targets for robbery?
Some acts of _________ are another type of robbery situation.
The robbery rate in 2011 represents the lowest rate in the U.S. since the mid ______s.
Both UCR data on robbery _______ rates and NCVS data on robbery ___________ rates show a similar pattern of reductions in robbery rates over the last two decades.
Far less than 2% of U.S. households are “touched” by a ________ each year
cities in ______ ___________ areas have substantially higher robbery rates than cities outside these areas and those in non metropolitan counties
Which region of the U.S. has the highest number of robberies?
South has the highest number of robberies
Which region of the U.S. has the highest rate of robbery?
Northeast has the highest rate of robbery
What are the characteristics of the average robber?
(2) under 25 years old
(3) African Americans
_____ are arrested offenders in about 88% of all robberies known to the police
males are arrested offenders in about 88% of all _________ known to the police
___% of robbery arrestees are under 25 years old.
56% of arrestees for robbery are _______-_________
The vast majority of _______ defendants had a prior felony arrest
_______ are more likely to have a prior felony record than murders, rapists, and aggravated assaulters.
What is the modus operandi, of street-level muggers and many carjackings?
primarily opportunistic criminals who become motivated by immediate situational cues
What is the modus operandi of bank robberies and other type of institutional robberies?
planning and calculation, involves making a series of decisions before engaging in robbery about
What is the planning process for bank robbers and other institutional robberies?
(1) when and where to commit the crime
(2) the type of targets to select
(3) planning ways to subdue the victim
(4) the type of weapon that will be used or threatened
(5) how to conceal one’s identity and avoid detection on video surveillance
(6) some contemplation about alternative escape routes if the original plans run amuck
What are the characteristics for attractive institutional and bank robberies?
(1) high visibility and high accessibility
(2) low protection or guardianship
(3) high portability and liquidity of the stolen goods
Which gender has a higher risk of robbery victimization?
Why do men have a higher risk of robbery victimization than women?
(1) for both completed and attempted robberies
(2) for both robberies with and without victim injury
Robbery victimization risks are highest for what age group?
21-24 years olds
Robbery victimization risks are the lowest for what age group?
65 or older
The risks of robbery victimization are nearly twice as high for ______ than Whites
Robbery rates are about also slightly higher for __________ than non-Hispanics
_________ were the offenders in 75% of all personal robberies and in a higher proportion of those were _________ (86%) than __________ (71%)
Why is “strange danger” in robbery overestimated?
(1) forcible thefts involving family members or ex-partners are often considered “private matters” and not typically reported/recorded in either NCVS or UCR data
(2) many street robberies of persons engaged in illegal activities are not typically reported to the police and these types of people are rarely included in victimization surveys
The majority of personal robberies involve ____-________, a majority of institutional or business robberies are _________.
What other victim attributes are associated with the risks of robbery victimization?
(1) people who have never married have greater robbery risks than other types of marital status
(2) as family income increases, the risks of personal robbery decrease
What are the offense and situational attributes characteristics of robbery?
(1) the location or target
(2) weapon use
(3) the monetary yield or “take” from the crime
(4) the likelihood of victim injury
(5) patterns of victim self-protection during the incident
What is the most common location for robbery?
the street or highway
What percentage of these robberies occur in these locations?
What region do these types of robberies occur in most frequently?
What area is most common for street muggings?
most prevalent in large metropolitan areas than in small cities and rural areas
What percentage of robberies are residential robberies (i.e. violent home invasions)?
What is the percentage per region of residential robberies type of robberies occur?
23% occur in the South
11% occur in the West and Northeast
What percentage of robberies are at service stations and convenience stores?
What percentage of robberies are involved at banks and other financial institutions?
Over 53% of the robberies in large metropolitan areas are ______ ________
Robberies of convenience stores and serve stations tend to be relatively more common in _____ ______ and _____ areas
What is the percentage of weapons used during robberies?
“strong arm” methods- 41%
knives and other cutting objects- 8%
other “dangerous weapons”- 8%
Which type of weapon is most common in institutional/business robberies?
What are “strong arm” methods?
using one’s physical size and strength to subdue or threaten the victim