Flashcards in Chapter 24: White Collar Crime (Occupational and Organizational Crime) Pt. 1 Deck (35):
What is white collar crime?
crimes committed by persons of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupations
Who developed the term white collar crime?
What is “elite deviance”?
further conveys the idea of the offender’s lofty social position
White collar crimes involve a violation of _____ and/or abuse of ______ .
White collar crimes, most often occur during the course of a legitimate ___________ activity and can be committed by an _________ or a _________ ______.
What is the difference between occupational (white collar) crime and organizational (white collar) crime?
“occupational crime”- motivated by personal gains
“organizational crimes” or “corporate crime”-committed to enhance/promote the interests of the company/business itself
What are the different types of white collar crime?
(1) Crime Against Government by Public Officials
(2) Crime Against Government by Private Citizens
(3) Crime Against Business
(4) Crime Against Investors
(5) Crime Against Consumers
(6) Crime Against Employees
(7) Crime Against the Environment
What are some examples of Crime Against Government by Public Officials?
Accepting bribes for political favors
Travel per diem fraud (e.g. falsifying travel expenses)
What are some examples of Crime Against Government by Private Citizens?
-social security fraud
-unemployment/workers compensation fraud
-tax evasion (e.g. income, personal property taxes)
What are some examples of Crime Against Business?
What are some examples of Crime Against Investors?
securities fraud (commodity/stock market)
What are some examples of Crime Against Employees?
discriminatory hiring/firing practices
safety violations for protecting workers (e.g. OSHA violations)
What are some examples of Crime Against Consumers?
(1) selling worthless products (e.g. health/medical curatives)
(2) selling defective equipment
(3) selling lower quality food
(4) chiseling/overcharging for bogus services/repair
(5) chiseling/overcharging for false weights/measure
(6) false advertising
(7) unnecessary drug prescriptions
(8) unnecessary surgery
(9) charity fraud
What are some examples of Crime Against the Environment?
industrial pollution of waterways
toxic waste disposal
What are the organizations that provide national estimates on white collar crime?
(1) Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
(2) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
(3) National White Collar Crime Center (NWCC)
(4) Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
(5) Federal Court Data
___% of households and ___% of individuals in a national survey reported experiencing at least one form of white-collar victimization within the previous year
_______ persons were arrested for fraud or embezzlement in the U.S.
184,000 persons were arrested for _____ or __________ in the U.S.
Total losses from computer crime in the U.S. ranges from $_ to $____ _______ a year
The economic losses from ____-_____ _________ exceed $350 billion per year
The economic losses from anti-trust violations exceed $____ ______ per year
medical negligence causes an estimated ___ million injuries and _______ deaths each year
More than _______ death per year are attributed to unsafe _______ and unsafe _________ __________
Complaints per “white collar crime”:
credit card fraud - ____%
government documents/benefits fraud - ___%
employment-related fraud - ___%
phone/utilities fraud - ___%
bank fraud - ___%
loan fraud - __%
What are the characteristics of the white collar crime offenders?
persons over 25 years old
Among embezzlers why is there higher proportion of arrests for females and older persons?
greater planning and access to business operations required for these crimes
Which social class commits most white collar crime?
middle class persons
The _____ has the highest victimization rates for identity theft.
Which Western states especially have high identity theft rates?
Arizona, Nevada, and California
The _______ and _________ have the lowest victimization rates for identity theft.
Who is at a greater risk for victimization for identity theft?
younger than 25 years
What do class/conflict theories say about white collar crime offending?
the profit-driven mentality of capitalistic countries is the fuel that underlies corporate crime in America
What does anomie theory say about white collar crime offending?
overemphasis on material success and the limited legitimate opportunities to achieve this goal
What does differential association theory say about white collar crime offending?
focuses specifically on embezzlement