Chapter 24: White Collar Crime (Occupational and Organizational Crime) Pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology > Chapter 24: White Collar Crime (Occupational and Organizational Crime) Pt. 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 24: White Collar Crime (Occupational and Organizational Crime) Pt. 1 Deck (35):
1

What is white collar crime?

crimes committed by persons of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupations

2

Who developed the term white collar crime?

Edwin Sutherland

3

What is “elite deviance”?

further conveys the idea of the offender’s lofty social position

4

White collar crimes involve a violation of _____ and/or abuse of ______ .

trust
power

5

White collar crimes, most often occur during the course of a legitimate ___________ activity and can be committed by an _________ or a _________ ______.

occupational
individual
corporate entity

6

What is the difference between occupational (white collar) crime and organizational (white collar) crime?

“occupational crime”- motivated by personal gains

“organizational crimes” or “corporate crime”-committed to enhance/promote the interests of the company/business itself

7

What are the different types of white collar crime?

(1) Crime Against Government by Public Officials
(2) Crime Against Government by Private Citizens
(3) Crime Against Business
(4) Crime Against Investors
(5) Crime Against Consumers
(6) Crime Against Employees
(7) Crime Against the Environment

8

What are some examples of Crime Against Government by Public Officials?

Accepting bribes for political favors

Travel per diem fraud (e.g. falsifying travel expenses)

9

What are some examples of Crime Against Government by Private Citizens?

-welfare fraud
-social security fraud
-unemployment/workers compensation fraud
-tax evasion (e.g. income, personal property taxes)

10

What are some examples of Crime Against Business?

-embezzlement
-employee theft
-insurance fraud
-bank/credit fraud
-computer hacking/fraud

11

What are some examples of Crime Against Investors?

securities fraud (commodity/stock market)

land/property/mortgage fraud

12

What are some examples of Crime Against Employees?

discriminatory hiring/firing practices

safety violations for protecting workers (e.g. OSHA violations)

13

What are some examples of Crime Against Consumers?

(1) selling worthless products (e.g. health/medical curatives)
(2) selling defective equipment
(3) selling lower quality food
(4) chiseling/overcharging for bogus services/repair
(5) chiseling/overcharging for false weights/measure
(6) false advertising
(7) unnecessary drug prescriptions
(8) unnecessary surgery
(9) charity fraud

14

What are some examples of Crime Against the Environment?

industrial pollution of waterways
air pollution
toxic waste disposal

15

What are the organizations that provide national estimates on white collar crime?

(1) Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
(2) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
(3) National White Collar Crime Center (NWCC)
(4) Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
(5) Federal Court Data

16

___% of households and ___% of individuals in a national survey reported experiencing at least one form of white-collar victimization within the previous year

47%
35%

17

_______ persons were arrested for fraud or embezzlement in the U.S.

184,000

18

184,000 persons were arrested for _____ or __________ in the U.S.

fraud
embezzlement

19

Total losses from computer crime in the U.S. ranges from $_ to $____ _______ a year

$1
$200 billion

20

The economic losses from ____-_____ _________ exceed $350 billion per year

anti-trust violations

21

The economic losses from anti-trust violations exceed $____ ______ per year

350 billion

22

medical negligence causes an estimated ___ million injuries and _______ deaths each year

1.3
80,000

23

More than _______ death per year are attributed to unsafe _______ and unsafe _________ __________

100,000
products
production techniques

24

Complaints per “white collar crime”:
credit card fraud - ____%
government documents/benefits fraud - ___%
employment-related fraud - ___%
phone/utilities fraud - ___%
bank fraud - ___%
loan fraud - __%

20%
15%
15%
13%
11%
4%

25

What are the characteristics of the white collar crime offenders?

persons over 25 years old
males
white

26

Among embezzlers why is there higher proportion of arrests for females and older persons?

greater planning and access to business operations required for these crimes

27

Which social class commits most white collar crime?

middle class persons

28

The _____ has the highest victimization rates for identity theft.

West

29

Which Western states especially have high identity theft rates?

Arizona, Nevada, and California

30

The _______ and _________ have the lowest victimization rates for identity theft.

Midwest
Northeast

31

Who is at a greater risk for victimization for identity theft?

younger than 25 years
Whites
urban residents

32

What do class/conflict theories say about white collar crime offending?

the profit-driven mentality of capitalistic countries is the fuel that underlies corporate crime in America

33

What does anomie theory say about white collar crime offending?

overemphasis on material success and the limited legitimate opportunities to achieve this goal

34

What does differential association theory say about white collar crime offending?

focuses specifically on embezzlement

35

Which “techniques of neutralization” do white collar offenders use?

(1) denial of injury
(2) denial of victim
(3) condemnation of the condemners

Decks in Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology Class (47):