Flashcards in Lab 6: Seedless Plants Deck (83)
The extant seedless plants consist of the __________, the ___________, and the _____________.
Bryophytes, fern allies, ferns.
The term "bryophyte" refers to those plants that lack __________.
The term "fern allies" refers to seedless plants that contain ___________ but are not _________.
Vascular tissue, ferns
Another word for cones?
The alternation of generations refers to a life cycle that exhibits separate multicellular _________ individuals and multicellular __________ individuals.
Two separate generations, the __________ and the __________ are needed to complete one cycle of life.
The __________ is a multicellular individual that may be unisexual or bisexual that produces haploid gamete cells (flagellated sperm or eggs).
Name this process: Male gametophytes release sperm into the surrounding environment to fuse with the retained female gametes.
After fertilization, the resulting zygote develops into the diploid, multicellular ___________.
A __________ releases haploid spores into the environment thatg germinate and grow to become a multicellular haploid gametophyte.
In all seedless plants, gametes are produced in jacketed multicellular structures called __________.
Two types of gametangia are __________ and __________.
__________ produce many flagellated sperm, which swim to an __________ that contains a single egg.
The new sporophyte grows out of the archegonium and and is usually anchored to the __________ by a __________.
The __________ is initially dependent on the __________ (zygote to early embryo) for sustenance.
Male reproductive structure in seedless plants. Produces haploid sperm.
Female reproductive organ in seedless plants. Produces haploid eggs.
Phylum of nonvascular plants made up of mosses and liverworts.
In seedless plants, the multicellular haploid phase that produces gametes.
Producing two types of spores; one gives rise to female megaspore and the other to a male microspore.
Producing a single type of spore that gives rise to a gametophyte with both male and female reproductive organs.
Sporangium containing megaspores.
A haploid spore that produces a female gametophyte.
Sporangium containing microspores.
A haploid spore that produces a male gametophyte
In seedless plants, hair-like extensions that anchor the plants to the ground.
In seedless plants, a multicellular organ where meiosis occurs and haploid cells develop.
A haploid cell that divides by mitosis to develop into a haploid adult.
In seedless plants, the diploid phase that produces spores.
A cone-like structure composed of sporophylls.
A simple, vegetative body which is not differentiated into true leaf, stem, or root.
Land plants alternate between a __________ stage and a __________ stage throughout their life cycle.
Plants in the diploid stage are called __________.
Plants in the haploid stage are called __________.
The bryophytes consist of 3 distinct phyla: __________, __________, and __________.
Hepatophyta, Anthocerophyta, and Bryophyta
Bryophytes are characterized by their __________, __________ (nonwoody) bodies.
"Bryophyte" is a term informally used to refer to ____ nonvascular plants and should not be confused with "Bryophyta".
In Bryophytes, the __________ is the dominant life stage.
Bryophytes absorb water and nutrients directly through their thin __________.
Instead if roots, bryophytes use __________.
Phylum Hepatophyta are otherwise known as _________.
The liverworts can be broken into two types: __________ liverworts and __________ liverworts.
Thallose liverworts do not have a __________ organization, but consist of flat, spreading bodies or __________.
The leafy liverworts have small, leaf-like structures. However these structures are not considered to be __________.
Thallose liverworts have broad flat or ribbon-like vegetative structures called the __________.
__________ do not produce leaf-life protrusions.
__________ have small over-lapping leaf-like protrusions arranged in a flat pattern.
Phylum Bryophyta is otherwise known as:
The phylum Bryophyta occurs within the __________.
__________ refers to the taxonomic classification of true mosses.
__________ refers to all nonvascular plants.
The phylum Anthocerophyta is otherwise known as:
The thalli of the gametophyte phase typically grow __________ across the ground.
The fern allies are made up of __________ and __________.
The fern allies dominant life stage is the __________.
__________ is a diverse group of plants that include club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts.
About _____ species still exist in the Lycophyta group.
__________ were once the dominant group of land plants on Earth.
Most of the world's coal reserves are a direct result of the __________ group.
_________ includes the horsetails.
Pterophyta horsetails are mostly extinct, with the exception of __________, __________, and __________.
Horsetails, the ferns, the whisk ferns
The __________ were a much larger group millions if years ago.
Two different evolutionary lines occur in __________.
The two different evolutionary lines that occur in Lycophyta differ significantly in their __________.
__________ are the club mosses.
Lycopodiales (club mosses) typically are __________or __________
Creeping (ground-dwelling), epiphytic (tree-dwelling)
Lycopodiales (club mosses) often inhabit __________ places.
__________ are the spike club mosses.
__________ are the quillworts.
Isoetales (quillworts) are all extinct with the exception of one genus:
The __________ are the most extensive of all seedless, vascular plants.
Like all fern allies, the ferns are vascular plants with both __________ and __________.
__________ produce true roots.
The __________ of ferns arise from an underground rhizome.
Sporangia clustered together:
Sori (sorus, singular)
Most species of fern are __________.
__________ are vascular plants with dichotomously branching stems.
Whisk ferns have __________ rhizoids instead of roots and __________ scales instead of leaves.
In whisk ferns, each branch contains several yellow buttons, which are comprised of __________ __________ per button.
These plants take up silica from the soil and deposit it as grains in their epidermal cells.
Horsetails (or Equisetum)
The early pioneers used handfuls if this plant as a primitive kind of Brilli pad; hence the name "scouring rush".
__________ and __________ were most prevalent during early plant evolution.
Bryophytes, fern allies