Lab 6: Seedless Plants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 6: Seedless Plants Deck (83):
1

The extant seedless plants consist of the __________, the ___________, and the _____________.

Bryophytes, fern allies, ferns.

2

The term "bryophyte" refers to those plants that lack __________.

Vascular tissue

3

The term "fern allies" refers to seedless plants that contain ___________ but are not _________.

Vascular tissue, ferns

4

Another word for cones?

Strobili

5

The alternation of generations refers to a life cycle that exhibits separate multicellular _________ individuals and multicellular __________ individuals.

Diploid, haploid

6

Two separate generations, the __________ and the __________ are needed to complete one cycle of life.

Gametophyte, sporophyte

7

The __________ is a multicellular individual that may be unisexual or bisexual that produces haploid gamete cells (flagellated sperm or eggs).

Gametophyte

8

Name this process: Male gametophytes release sperm into the surrounding environment to fuse with the retained female gametes.

Fertilization

9

After fertilization, the resulting zygote develops into the diploid, multicellular ___________.

Sporophyte

10

A __________ releases haploid spores into the environment thatg germinate and grow to become a multicellular haploid gametophyte.

Sporophyte

11

In all seedless plants, gametes are produced in jacketed multicellular structures called __________.

Gametangia

12

Two types of gametangia are __________ and __________.

Antheridia, archegonium

13

__________ produce many flagellated sperm, which swim to an __________ that contains a single egg.

Antheridia, archegonium

14

The new sporophyte grows out of the archegonium and and is usually anchored to the __________ by a __________.

Gametophyte, "foot"

15

The __________ is initially dependent on the __________ (zygote to early embryo) for sustenance.

Sporophyte, gametophyte

16

Male reproductive structure in seedless plants. Produces haploid sperm.

Antheridium

17

Female reproductive organ in seedless plants. Produces haploid eggs.

Archegonium

18

Phylum of nonvascular plants made up of mosses and liverworts.

Bryophytes

19

In seedless plants, the multicellular haploid phase that produces gametes.

Gametophyte

20

Producing two types of spores; one gives rise to female megaspore and the other to a male microspore.

Heterosporous

21

Producing a single type of spore that gives rise to a gametophyte with both male and female reproductive organs.

Homosporous

22

Sporangium containing megaspores.

Megasporangium

23

A haploid spore that produces a female gametophyte.

Megaspore

24

Sporangium containing microspores.

Microsporangium

25

A haploid spore that produces a male gametophyte

Microspore

26

In seedless plants, hair-like extensions that anchor the plants to the ground.

Rhizoid

27

In seedless plants, a multicellular organ where meiosis occurs and haploid cells develop.

Sporangium

28

A haploid cell that divides by mitosis to develop into a haploid adult.

Spore

29

In seedless plants, the diploid phase that produces spores.

Sporophyte

30

A cone-like structure composed of sporophylls.

Strobilus

31

A simple, vegetative body which is not differentiated into true leaf, stem, or root.

Thallus

32

Land plants alternate between a __________ stage and a __________ stage throughout their life cycle.

Diploid, haploid

33

Plants in the diploid stage are called __________.

Sporophytes

34

Plants in the haploid stage are called __________.

Gametophytes

35

The bryophytes consist of 3 distinct phyla: __________, __________, and __________.

Hepatophyta, Anthocerophyta, and Bryophyta

36

Bryophytes are characterized by their __________, __________ (nonwoody) bodies.

Small, herbaceous

37

"Bryophyte" is a term informally used to refer to ____ nonvascular plants and should not be confused with "Bryophyta".

ALL

38

In Bryophytes, the __________ is the dominant life stage.

Gametophyte

39

Bryophytes absorb water and nutrients directly through their thin __________.

"Leaves"

40

Instead if roots, bryophytes use __________.

Rhizoids

41

Phylum Hepatophyta are otherwise known as _________.

Liverworts

42

The liverworts can be broken into two types: __________ liverworts and __________ liverworts.

Thallose, leafy

43

Thallose liverworts do not have a __________ organization, but consist of flat, spreading bodies or __________.

Leaf/stem, thalli.

44

The leafy liverworts have small, leaf-like structures. However these structures are not considered to be __________.

True leaves

45

Thallose liverworts have broad flat or ribbon-like vegetative structures called the __________.

Thallus

46

__________ do not produce leaf-life protrusions.

Thallus

47

__________ have small over-lapping leaf-like protrusions arranged in a flat pattern.

Leafy liverworts

48

Phylum Bryophyta is otherwise known as:

True mosses

49

The phylum Bryophyta occurs within the __________.

Bryophyte clade

50

__________ refers to the taxonomic classification of true mosses.

Bryophyta

51

__________ refers to all nonvascular plants.

Bryophyte

52

The phylum Anthocerophyta is otherwise known as:

Hornworts

53

The thalli of the gametophyte phase typically grow __________ across the ground.

Horizontally

54

The fern allies are made up of __________ and __________.

Lycophyta, Pterophyta

55

The fern allies dominant life stage is the __________.

Sporophyte

56

__________ is a diverse group of plants that include club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts.

Lycophyta

57

About _____ species still exist in the Lycophyta group.

900

58

__________ were once the dominant group of land plants on Earth.

Lycophyta

59

Most of the world's coal reserves are a direct result of the __________ group.

Lycophyta

60

_________ includes the horsetails.

Pterophyta

61

Pterophyta horsetails are mostly extinct, with the exception of __________, __________, and __________.

Horsetails, the ferns, the whisk ferns

62

The __________ were a much larger group millions if years ago.

Pterophyta

63

Two different evolutionary lines occur in __________.

Lycophyta

64

The two different evolutionary lines that occur in Lycophyta differ significantly in their __________.

Reproductive structure

65

__________ are the club mosses.

Lycopodiales

66

Lycopodiales (club mosses) typically are __________or __________

Creeping (ground-dwelling), epiphytic (tree-dwelling)

67

Lycopodiales (club mosses) often inhabit __________ places.

Moist

68

__________ are the spike club mosses.

Selaginellales

69

__________ are the quillworts.

Isoetales

70

Isoetales (quillworts) are all extinct with the exception of one genus:

Isoetes

71

The __________ are the most extensive of all seedless, vascular plants.

Ferns

72

Like all fern allies, the ferns are vascular plants with both __________ and __________.

Xylem, phloem

73

__________ produce true roots.

Ferns

74

The __________ of ferns arise from an underground rhizome.

Microphylls

75

Sporangia clustered together:

Sori (sorus, singular)

76

Most species of fern are __________.

Homosporous

77

__________ are vascular plants with dichotomously branching stems.

Whisk ferns

78

Whisk ferns have __________ rhizoids instead of roots and __________ scales instead of leaves.

Avascular

79

In whisk ferns, each branch contains several yellow buttons, which are comprised of __________ __________ per button.

3 sporangia

80

These plants take up silica from the soil and deposit it as grains in their epidermal cells.

Horsetails (or Equisetum)

81

The early pioneers used handfuls if this plant as a primitive kind of Brilli pad; hence the name "scouring rush".

Horsetails

82

__________ and __________ were most prevalent during early plant evolution.

Bryophytes, fern allies

83

Many bryophytes and fern allies have been replaced by __________.

Vascular plants