Flashcards in Lecture 30-Ecology Deck (111):
Ecology = (__________ + __________).
Oikos + logos
Ecology is the scientific study of interactions between __________ and __________.
How many subdisciplines are there within ecology?
What are the 6 subdisciplines within ecology?
Organismal, population, community, ecosystem, landscape, and global ecology
Organism all ecology is made up of:
Organisms and their environments
Population ecology is made up of:
Populations and their environments
Community ecology is made up of:
Biotic interactions between species
Ecosystem ecology is made up of:
Energy flow and chemical cycling
Landscape ecology is made up of:
Interactions among ecosystems
Global ecology is made up of:
An organism's environment is determined by both __________ and __________ factors.
Examples of abiotic factors are:
Physical, chemical, and geological factors
Examples of biotic factors are:
Prey, competitors, and predators
Interactions determines __________ and __________ of organisms.
__________ determines distribution and abundance of organisms.
A long-term, prevailing weather condition in a particular area.
The main components of climate are:
Temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind
Climate at a global, regional, or local level.
Climate that shows very fine patterns (e.g. fallen logs)
Incidence of __________ __________ drives global climate.
Incidence of solar radiation does what?
Drives global climate
There is __________ __________ in sunlight intensity.
There is latitudinal variation in:
Why does the intensity of solar radiation vary seasonally?
Because Earth is tilted on its axis relative to its plane of orbit around the sun
Intense solar radiation near the equator initiatives a global pattern of __________ __________ and __________.
Air circulation, precipitation
30 degrees N and 30 degrees S have __________ climates.
_____ degrees _____ and _____ degrees _____ have arid climates, often associated with desert.
What can affect local climate?
Bodies of water, mountains, and changing angle of the sun
Why do oceans and lakes tend to moderate the climate of nearby land?
Because of the high specific heat of water
Because of the high specific heat of water, oceans and lakes tend to do what?
Moderate the climate of nearby land
Small organisms are affected by what kind if climate?
Microclimate (small-scale climate)
Some examples of microclimate are:
Shade, evaporation, and a change in wind pattern
__________ are major terrestrial or aquatic life zones.
Terrestrial biomes are characterized by what?
__________ biomes are characterized by vegetation.
What do terrestrial biomes show?
Strong latitudinal patterns
__________ and __________ characterize terrestrial biomes.
Distribution of the tropical forest?
Equatorial and subequatorial regions
Tropical forests have _____ precipitation.
Tropical forests have _____ temperature.
Tropical forests have _____ biodiversity.
Distribution of the savanna?
Equatorial and subequatorial regions
Savannas have what type of precipitation?
Savannas have _____ temperature.
Other attributes of the savanna?
Grasses and small, non-woody plants, scattered trees, and large herbivores
Distribution of the desert?
Bands near 30 degrees N and S latitude
Deserts have _____ precipitation.
Deserts have _____ temperature.
Other attributes of the desert?
Plants are adapted for dry environments
Distribution of the chaparral?
Midaltitude coastal regions
In Spain and Chile, the chaparral is referred to as a:
In France, the chaparral is referred to as a:
In South Africa, the chaparral is referred to as a:
Chaparrals have _____ precipitation.
Chaparrals have _____ summers and the rest if the year is _____.
Other attributes of the chaparral?
Shrubs and small trees, high plant diversity, and high diversity of small mammals
Distribution of temperate grasslands?
Temperate grasslands in North America:
Temperate grasslands in South Africa:
Temperate grasslands in Argentina:
Temperate grasslands in Russia:
Temperate grasslands have __________ precipitation.
Temperate grasslands have _____ summers and _____ winters.
Other attributes of temperate grasslands?
Grasses and forbs, large grazers, suitable for agriculture
Distribution of Northern coniferous forests?
Northern North America and Eurasia
Another word for a Northern coniferous forest?
Precipitation of Northern coniferous forests?
Annual precipitation from 30-70cm
Temperature in Northern coniferous forest?
Long and cold winters
Other attributes of Northern coniferous forest?
Conifers, migratory birds, moose, and brown bears
Distribution of Temperate Broadleaf Forests?
Midaltitudes in Northern Hemisphere, New Zealand, and Australia
Precipitation for Temperate Broadleaf Forest?
Temperature in Temperate Broadleaf Forests?
Four distinct seasons. Summers are hot and humid.
Other attributes of Temperate Broadleaf Forest?
Deciduous trees; vertical layers within in forest
Distribution of the Tundra?
Expansive areas of the Arctic
Precipitation in Tundras?
Temperature in Tundras?
Long and cold winter, short and chilly summer
Other attributes of the Tundra?
Permafrost, caribou, and reindeer
Aquatic biomes are characterized by:
Many aquatic biomes are physically and chemically:
Based on light penetration : __________ vs. __________.
Photic vs. aphotic
Based on distance from shore and water depth: __________ vs. __________ (freshwater), __________ vs. __________ vs. __________ (marine).
Littoral vs. limnetic (freshwater); Intertidal vs. neritic vs. oceanic (marine)
Based on environment: __________ vs. __________ (freshwater), __________ vs. __________ vs. __________ (marine).
Pelagic vs. benthic; pelagic vs. benthic vs. abyssal (marine)
20% of Earth's land surface?
Largest terrestrial biomes?
Northern Coniferous Forests
Nutrient content in lakes:
Inundated by water periodically.
Wetlands have a high capacity to:
Filter dissolved nutrients and chemical pollutants
Other attributes of wetlands?
Support plants adapted to water-saturated soil
A transition area between river and sea.
Physical characteristic of a lake?
It's a standing body of water
One of the most productive biomes?
Physical characteristic of streams and rivers?
Streams and rivers have __________ rich in __________.
In estuaries, salinity __________.
Other attributes of streams and rivers?
Great diversity of fish and invertebrates
Other attributes of estuaries?
Saltmarsh grasses, algae, oysters, crabs, and many fish
__________ __________ are periodically submerged and exposed by the tides.
Intertidal zones are high in?
Oxygen and nutrient levels
Other attributes of intertidal zones?
High diversity and biomass of marine algae. Animals are adapted for attaching to hard substrate.
Oceanic pelagic zone is _____% of Earth's surface.
The oceanic pelagic zone is _____ in oxygen and _____ in nutrient concentration.
Other attributes of the oceanic pelagic zone?
Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and many free-swimming animals
Coral reefs are sensitive to:
What are coral reefs formed from?
Calcium carbonate skeletons of corals
Coral reefs require:
High oxygen level
Coral reefs have high:
Describe the physical characteristics of the marine benthic zone.
Sea floor below surface waters. Cold. High water pressure.
Marine benthic zones have __________ oxygen.