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Flashcards in Lecture 30-Ecology Deck (111):
0

Ecology = (__________ + __________).

Oikos + logos

1

Ecology is the scientific study of interactions between __________ and __________.

Organisms, environment

2

How many subdisciplines are there within ecology?

6

3

What are the 6 subdisciplines within ecology?

Organismal, population, community, ecosystem, landscape, and global ecology

4

Organism all ecology is made up of:

Organisms and their environments

5

Population ecology is made up of:

Populations and their environments

6

Community ecology is made up of:

Biotic interactions between species

7

Ecosystem ecology is made up of:

Energy flow and chemical cycling

8

Landscape ecology is made up of:

Interactions among ecosystems

9

Global ecology is made up of:

Biosphere

10

An organism's environment is determined by both __________ and __________ factors.

Abiotic, biotic

11

Abiotic =

Nonliving

12

Biotic =

Living

13

Examples of abiotic factors are:

Physical, chemical, and geological factors

14

Examples of biotic factors are:

Prey, competitors, and predators

15

Interactions determines __________ and __________ of organisms.

Distribution, abundance

16

__________ determines distribution and abundance of organisms.

Interaction

17

A long-term, prevailing weather condition in a particular area.

Climate

18

The main components of climate are:

Temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind

19

Climate at a global, regional, or local level.

Macroclimate

20

Climate that shows very fine patterns (e.g. fallen logs)

Microclimate

21

Incidence of __________ __________ drives global climate.

Solar radiation

22

Incidence of solar radiation does what?

Drives global climate

23

There is __________ __________ in sunlight intensity.

Latitudinal variation

24

There is latitudinal variation in:

Sunlight intensity

25

Why does the intensity of solar radiation vary seasonally?

Because Earth is tilted on its axis relative to its plane of orbit around the sun

26

Intense solar radiation near the equator initiatives a global pattern of __________ __________ and __________.

Air circulation, precipitation

27

30 degrees N and 30 degrees S have __________ climates.

Arid

28

_____ degrees _____ and _____ degrees _____ have arid climates, often associated with desert.

30N, 30S

29

What can affect local climate?

Bodies of water, mountains, and changing angle of the sun

30

Why do oceans and lakes tend to moderate the climate of nearby land?

Because of the high specific heat of water

31

Because of the high specific heat of water, oceans and lakes tend to do what?

Moderate the climate of nearby land

32

Small organisms are affected by what kind if climate?

Microclimate (small-scale climate)

33

Some examples of microclimate are:

Shade, evaporation, and a change in wind pattern

34

__________ are major terrestrial or aquatic life zones.

Biomes

35

Terrestrial biomes are characterized by what?

Vegetation

36

__________ biomes are characterized by vegetation.

Terrestrial

37

What do terrestrial biomes show?

Strong latitudinal patterns

38

__________ and __________ characterize terrestrial biomes.

Temperature, precipitation

39

Distribution of the tropical forest?

Equatorial and subequatorial regions

40

Tropical forests have _____ precipitation.

High

41

Tropical forests have _____ temperature.

High

42

Tropical forests have _____ biodiversity.

High

43

Distribution of the savanna?

Equatorial and subequatorial regions

44

Savannas have what type of precipitation?

Seasonal rainfall

45

Savannas have _____ temperature.

Warm

46

Other attributes of the savanna?

Grasses and small, non-woody plants, scattered trees, and large herbivores

47

Distribution of the desert?

Bands near 30 degrees N and S latitude

48

Deserts have _____ precipitation.

Low

49

Deserts have _____ temperature.

Variable

50

Other attributes of the desert?

Plants are adapted for dry environments

51

Distribution of the chaparral?

Midaltitude coastal regions

52

In Spain and Chile, the chaparral is referred to as a:

Matorral

53

In France, the chaparral is referred to as a:

Maquis

54

In South Africa, the chaparral is referred to as a:

Fynbos

55

Chaparrals have _____ precipitation.

Seasonal

56

Chaparrals have _____ summers and the rest if the year is _____.

Hot, cool

57

Other attributes of the chaparral?

Shrubs and small trees, high plant diversity, and high diversity of small mammals

58

Distribution of temperate grasslands?

Temperate regions

59

Temperate grasslands in North America:

Great Plains

60

Temperate grasslands in South Africa:

Veldts

61

Temperate grasslands in Argentina:

Pampas

62

Temperate grasslands in Russia:

Steppes

63

Temperate grasslands have __________ precipitation.

Seasonal

64

Temperate grasslands have _____ summers and _____ winters.

Hot, cold

65

Other attributes of temperate grasslands?

Grasses and forbs, large grazers, suitable for agriculture

66

Distribution of Northern coniferous forests?

Northern North America and Eurasia

67

Another word for a Northern coniferous forest?

Taiga

68

Precipitation of Northern coniferous forests?

Annual precipitation from 30-70cm

69

Temperature in Northern coniferous forest?

Long and cold winters

70

Other attributes of Northern coniferous forest?

Conifers, migratory birds, moose, and brown bears

71

Distribution of Temperate Broadleaf Forests?

Midaltitudes in Northern Hemisphere, New Zealand, and Australia

72

Precipitation for Temperate Broadleaf Forest?

70-200 cm/year

73

Temperature in Temperate Broadleaf Forests?

Four distinct seasons. Summers are hot and humid.

74

Other attributes of Temperate Broadleaf Forest?

Deciduous trees; vertical layers within in forest

75

Distribution of the Tundra?

Expansive areas of the Arctic

76

Precipitation in Tundras?

20-60 cm/year

77

Temperature in Tundras?

Long and cold winter, short and chilly summer

78

Other attributes of the Tundra?

Permafrost, caribou, and reindeer

79

Aquatic biomes are characterized by:

Physical environment

80

Many aquatic biomes are physically and chemically:

Stratified (layered)

81

Based on light penetration : __________ vs. __________.

Photic vs. aphotic

82

Based on distance from shore and water depth: __________ vs. __________ (freshwater), __________ vs. __________ vs. __________ (marine).

Littoral vs. limnetic (freshwater); Intertidal vs. neritic vs. oceanic (marine)

83

Based on environment: __________ vs. __________ (freshwater), __________ vs. __________ vs. __________ (marine).

Pelagic vs. benthic; pelagic vs. benthic vs. abyssal (marine)

84

20% of Earth's land surface?

Tundras

85

Largest terrestrial biomes?

Northern Coniferous Forests

86

Nutrient content in lakes:

Vary greatly

87

Inundated by water periodically.

Wetlands

88

Wetlands have a high capacity to:

Filter dissolved nutrients and chemical pollutants

89

Other attributes of wetlands?

Support plants adapted to water-saturated soil

90

A transition area between river and sea.

Estuary

91

Physical characteristic of a lake?

It's a standing body of water

92

One of the most productive biomes?

Wetlands

93

Physical characteristic of streams and rivers?

Current

94

Streams and rivers have __________ rich in __________.

Headwaters, oxygen

95

In estuaries, salinity __________.

Varies

96

Other attributes of streams and rivers?

Great diversity of fish and invertebrates

97

Other attributes of estuaries?

Saltmarsh grasses, algae, oysters, crabs, and many fish

98

__________ __________ are periodically submerged and exposed by the tides.

Intertidal zones

99

Intertidal zones are high in?

Oxygen and nutrient levels

100

Other attributes of intertidal zones?

High diversity and biomass of marine algae. Animals are adapted for attaching to hard substrate.

101

Oceanic pelagic zone is _____% of Earth's surface.

70%

102

The oceanic pelagic zone is _____ in oxygen and _____ in nutrient concentration.

High, low

103

Other attributes of the oceanic pelagic zone?

Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and many free-swimming animals

104

Coral reefs are sensitive to:

Temperature

105

What are coral reefs formed from?

Calcium carbonate skeletons of corals

106

Coral reefs require:

High oxygen level

107

Coral reefs have high:

Species diversity

108

Describe the physical characteristics of the marine benthic zone.

Sea floor below surface waters. Cold. High water pressure.

109

Marine benthic zones have __________ oxygen.

Sufficient

110

Other attributes of the marine benthic zone?

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents support chemoautotrophs