Lecture 21-Immune and Lymphatic System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 21-Immune and Lymphatic System Deck (71):
0

Animals face constant danger from __________.

Pathogens

1

The __________ __________ enables an animal to avoid or limit many infections.

Immune system

2

__________ immunity is found in all animals and plants.

Innate

3

"Built-in immunity".

Innate immunity

4

__________ __________ is the first line of defense against pathogens.

Barrier defense

5

Examples of barrier defenses are:

Exoskeleton or skin, mucous membranes, and secretions

6

__________ are contained in salvia, mucus, and tears.

Lysozymes

7

Once a pathogen breaches barrier defenses, it faces the second line of defenses, called the:

Internal defenses

8

Animals recognize non-self (broad range of pathogens) using a small set of conserved receptors called:

Toll receptors

9

Ingestion and digestion of foreign invaders.

Phagocytosis

10

Attack microbes or impede their reproduction.

Antimicrobial peptides/proteins

11

Recognize and eliminate diseased cells.

Natural killer (NK) cells

12

Changes brought on by signaling molecules released upon injury or infection.

Inflammatory responses

13

What molecules are involved in inflammatory responses.

Histamines

14

Which internal defenses are only found in vertebrates?

NK cells and inflammatory responses

15

__________ immunity produces a vast arsenal of pathogen-specific receptors to recognize and respond to pathogen attacks with tremendous specificity.

Adaptive

16

Adaptive immunity is unique to:

Vertebrates

17

Stores and matures T-cells.

Thymus

18

T-cells and B-cells:

Adaptive immunity

19

Removes old RBC; stores RBC; synthesizes antibodies; produces RBC and immune cells.

Spleen

20

Packed with immune cells. (Tonsils and adenoids are masses of immune tissues).

Lymph nodes

21

Produces RBC, WBC, immune cells, and platelets.

Bone marrow

22

The thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lymph vessels make up the:

Lymphatic system

23

A precursor to immune cells and blood cells (stem cells) are produced in:

Bone marrow

24

Bone marrow differentiates into:

Lymphoid stem cells

25

Lymphoid stem cells give rise to:

Lymphocytes

26

Lymphocytes include these types of cells:

B cells and T cells

27

B cells and T cells are important for __________ __________.

Adaptive immunity

28

Defends against extracellular pathogens in blood and lymph by binding to antigens.

Humoral immune system

29

Defends against intracellular pathogens and cancer by binding to and lysing the infected cells or cancer cells.

Cell-mediated immune response

30

Involves B cells

Humoral immune response

31

Cell-mediated immune response defends against __________ pathogens.

Intracellular

32

Involves T cells

Cell-mediated immune response

33

Lymphocytes that migrate from bone marrow to thymus and mature in the organ.

T cells

34

Humoral immune response defends against __________ pathogens.

Extracellular

35

Lymphocytes that mature in the bone marrow.

B cells

36

Any substance that elicits a response from immune cells.

Antigen

37

Humoral immune response involves __________ and __________.

B cells, antibodies

38

B cell antigen binding receptors are _____-shaped.

Y

39

An antigen receptor of a B cell binds to an __________.

Epitope

40

__________ __________ secrete antibodies.

Plasma cells

41

Also known as the immunoglobulin; a secreted protein that binds to antigens and can deactivate antigens.

Antibody

42

An antibody is a multifunctional defense weapon and it can deactivate pathogens by processes such as:

Viral neutralization, opsonization, activation of complement system, and pore formation

43

Cell-mediated immune response involves __________ cells and __________ cells.

Helper T, cytotoxic T

44

T cells do not produce:

Antibodies

45

Antigen receptors of T cells only bind to fragments of antigens that are:

Presented on the surface of host cells

46

Antigen presentation is achieved through:

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

47

These do not have MHC Type 1.

Red blood cells

48

Found in almost all cells.

Class 1 MHC molecules

49

Class 1 MHC molecules are recognized by:

Cytotoxic T cells only

50

Class 1 MHC molecules are found in __________ __________ cells.

Almost all

51

Class II MHC molecules are found only in __________ __________ cells.

Antigen-presenting

52

Examples of antigen-presenting cells are:

Dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells

53

Class II MHC molecules are recognized by:

Helper T cells AND cytotoxic T cells

54

__________ T cells bind to __________ molecules of the infected and kill.

Cytotoxic, class I MHC

55

Programmed cell death.

Apoptosis

56

__________ T cells bind to __________ molecules of the antigen-presenting cells and active B and T cells.

Helper, class II MHC

57

Produced by both antigen-presenting cells and helper T cells. Stimulate other immune cells.

Cytokines

58

Stimulate replicating themselves.

Cytokines

59

The intersection between humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

Helper T cells

60

Adaptive immunity relies on:

Memory cells

61

Give rise to memory cells.

B and T cells

62

Long-lived cells that can attack the antigens in the future encounter more readily.

Memory cells

63

There are _____ different B cells in each person.

10^6

64

There are _____ different T cells in each person.

10^7

65

Self-reactivity tested in:

Bone marrow or thymus

66

Lymphocyte amplification upon binding to antigen.

Clonal selection

67

Disruptions in the immune system:

Allergies

68

Allergies are __________ responses to certain antigens called __________.

Hypersensitive, allergens

69

The antibody (IgE) attaches to the __________ __________, releasing __________, causing allergic reactions.

Mast cells, histamines

70

Activate other cells.

Helper T cells