Flashcards in Lecture 21-Immune and Lymphatic System Deck (71):
Animals face constant danger from __________.
The __________ __________ enables an animal to avoid or limit many infections.
__________ immunity is found in all animals and plants.
__________ __________ is the first line of defense against pathogens.
Examples of barrier defenses are:
Exoskeleton or skin, mucous membranes, and secretions
__________ are contained in salvia, mucus, and tears.
Once a pathogen breaches barrier defenses, it faces the second line of defenses, called the:
Animals recognize non-self (broad range of pathogens) using a small set of conserved receptors called:
Ingestion and digestion of foreign invaders.
Attack microbes or impede their reproduction.
Recognize and eliminate diseased cells.
Natural killer (NK) cells
Changes brought on by signaling molecules released upon injury or infection.
What molecules are involved in inflammatory responses.
Which internal defenses are only found in vertebrates?
NK cells and inflammatory responses
__________ immunity produces a vast arsenal of pathogen-specific receptors to recognize and respond to pathogen attacks with tremendous specificity.
Adaptive immunity is unique to:
Stores and matures T-cells.
T-cells and B-cells:
Removes old RBC; stores RBC; synthesizes antibodies; produces RBC and immune cells.
Packed with immune cells. (Tonsils and adenoids are masses of immune tissues).
Produces RBC, WBC, immune cells, and platelets.
The thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lymph vessels make up the:
A precursor to immune cells and blood cells (stem cells) are produced in:
Bone marrow differentiates into:
Lymphoid stem cells
Lymphoid stem cells give rise to:
Lymphocytes include these types of cells:
B cells and T cells
B cells and T cells are important for __________ __________.
Defends against extracellular pathogens in blood and lymph by binding to antigens.
Humoral immune system
Defends against intracellular pathogens and cancer by binding to and lysing the infected cells or cancer cells.
Cell-mediated immune response
Involves B cells
Humoral immune response
Cell-mediated immune response defends against __________ pathogens.
Involves T cells
Cell-mediated immune response
Lymphocytes that migrate from bone marrow to thymus and mature in the organ.
Humoral immune response defends against __________ pathogens.
Lymphocytes that mature in the bone marrow.
Any substance that elicits a response from immune cells.
Humoral immune response involves __________ and __________.
B cells, antibodies
B cell antigen binding receptors are _____-shaped.
An antigen receptor of a B cell binds to an __________.
__________ __________ secrete antibodies.
Also known as the immunoglobulin; a secreted protein that binds to antigens and can deactivate antigens.
An antibody is a multifunctional defense weapon and it can deactivate pathogens by processes such as:
Viral neutralization, opsonization, activation of complement system, and pore formation
Cell-mediated immune response involves __________ cells and __________ cells.
Helper T, cytotoxic T
T cells do not produce:
Antigen receptors of T cells only bind to fragments of antigens that are:
Presented on the surface of host cells
Antigen presentation is achieved through:
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC).
These do not have MHC Type 1.
Red blood cells
Found in almost all cells.
Class 1 MHC molecules
Class 1 MHC molecules are recognized by:
Cytotoxic T cells only
Class 1 MHC molecules are found in __________ __________ cells.
Class II MHC molecules are found only in __________ __________ cells.
Examples of antigen-presenting cells are:
Dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells
Class II MHC molecules are recognized by:
Helper T cells AND cytotoxic T cells
__________ T cells bind to __________ molecules of the infected and kill.
Cytotoxic, class I MHC
Programmed cell death.
__________ T cells bind to __________ molecules of the antigen-presenting cells and active B and T cells.
Helper, class II MHC
Produced by both antigen-presenting cells and helper T cells. Stimulate other immune cells.
Stimulate replicating themselves.
The intersection between humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.
Helper T cells
Adaptive immunity relies on:
Give rise to memory cells.
B and T cells
Long-lived cells that can attack the antigens in the future encounter more readily.
There are _____ different B cells in each person.
There are _____ different T cells in each person.
Self-reactivity tested in:
Bone marrow or thymus
Lymphocyte amplification upon binding to antigen.
Disruptions in the immune system:
Allergies are __________ responses to certain antigens called __________.
The antibody (IgE) attaches to the __________ __________, releasing __________, causing allergic reactions.
Mast cells, histamines