Lecture 22-Excretory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 22-Excretory System Deck (77):
0

The average human body is composed of _____% water.

60%

1

The average human lungs are composed of _____% water.

90%

2

The average human skin is composed of _____% water.

80%

3

The average human blood is composed of _____% water.

82%

4

The average human brain is composed of _____% water.

70%

5

The average human muscle is composed of _____% water.

75%

6

The average human bones are composed of _____% water.

22%

7

Maintaining internal water balance, or __________, is extremely important.

Osmoregulation

8

__________ is a special type of diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.

Osmosis

9

In osmosis, water moves from an area of __________ to __________ free water concentration.

Higher to lower

10

In osmosis, water moves from an area of __________ to __________ solute concentration.

Lower to higher

11

Osmosis occurs whenever two solutions separated by the membrane differ in __________.

Osmolarity

12

Total solute concentration expressed as morality (milliOsmoles/L).

Osmolarity

13

Water flows by osmosis from a __________ solution to a __________ one.

Hypoosmotic---->Hyperosmotic

14

Hypoosmotic: __________ solute concentration, __________ free water concentration.

Lower, higher

15

Hyperosmotic: __________ solute concentration, __________ free water concentration.

Higher, lower

16

__________ __________ must be removed.

Metabolic wastes

17

Nitrogenous wastes are produced in the form of __________, which is very toxic.

Ammonia

18

Ammonia needs to be __________ or __________ to less toxic ones.

Diluted, converted

19

Nitrogenous wastes must be __________ _____ __________ to be excreted from the body.

Dissolved in water

20

The removal of metabolic wastes has a large impact on an animal's:

Water balance

21

The three different types of nitrogenous wastes are:

Ammonia, urea, and uric acid

22

Very low toxicity, conversion from ammonia costs energy.

Urea

23

Highly toxic, highly soluble, easily lost by diffusion.

Ammonia

24

Nontoxic, does not dissolve in water, energetically very expensive.

Uric acid

25

Found in fish.

Ammonia

26

Found in mammals.

Urea

27

Found in birds.

Uric acid

28

__________ is the process that removes metabolic waste from the body through osmoregulation.

Excretion

29

Excretion is the process that removes metabolic waste from the body through __________.

Osmoregulation

30

Excretion is different from __________.

Defecation

31

The 4 main stages of excretion are:

Filtration-----> Reabsorption -----> Secretion -----> Excretion

32

Water and small solute from blood to excretory tubule.

Filtration

33

Processed filtrate released as urine.

Excretion

34

Nonessential solutes and wastes added to excretory tube.

Secretion

35

Valuable solutes (glucose, salt, vitamins, hormones, animo acids) and water back to blood.

Reabsorption

36

What in the excretory ruble makes filtering possible?

Selectively permeable membrane

37

The excretory system is an efficient __________ __________.

Filter system

38

The glomerulus is the site for:

Filtration

39

Glomerular capillaries and epithelial tissues in the Bowman's capsule are permeable through these, but not blood cells and large molecules.

Water and small solutes

40

__________ __________ contains water, salts, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, nitrogenous wastes, etc.

Initial filtrate

41

Specialized regions of a nephron are the sites for __________ and __________.

Reabsorption, secretion

42

What is the direction of filtrate flow?

Bowman's capsule -----> proximal tubule -----> Loop of Henle -----> distal tubule -----> collecting duct -----> urine

43

In the Loop of Henle, the descending limb is permeable to __________ but not to __________.

Water, solutes

44

In the Loop of Henle, the ascending limb is permeable to __________ but not to __________.

Solutes, water

45

In the Loop of Henle, the descending limb is permeable to water but not to solutes, but the ascending limb is permeable to solutes and not to water. This is very important in establishing __________ ___________ inside the kidneys.

Concentration gradient

46

Reabsorption of ions, water, nutrients; secretion of H+ and ammonia.

Proximal tube

47

Reabsorption of water.

Descending limb of the Loop of Henle

48

Reabsorption of salt.

Ascending limb of the Loop of Henle

49

In the reabsorption of salt, salt diffuses out at the __________ __________.

Thin segment

50

In the reabsorption of salt, active transport of salt happens at the __________ __________.

Thick segment

51

Reabsorption of salt, water, and bicarbonate; secretion of K+ and H+.

Distal tubule

52

Reabsorption of salt, water, and urea.

Collecting duct

53

The kidneys __________ __________ by maintaining osmolarity gradient.

Concentrate urine

54

__________ and __________ contribute to the osmolarity gradient.

NaCl and urea

55

Countercurrent system that expends energy to create concentration gradient.

Countercurrent multiplier system

56

The kidney has one of the highest __________ __________ of any organ.

Metabolic rates

57

_____ L of blood flows through a pair of kidneys each day.

1,600

58

Nephrons process _____ L if initial filtrates.

180

59

_____% of water, sugar, amino acids, vitamins, and nutrients are reabsorbed in blood.

99%

60

_____ L of urine is produced each day.

1.5

61

Some foods we take in are __________ and can have effects on kidney function (ex: alcohol and caffeine).

Diuretic

62

Inhibits ADH (antidiuretic hormone) secretion.

Alcohol

63

Inhibits reabsorption of Na+, increases glomerular filtration rate.

Caffeine

64

A painful inflammation of the joints caused by deposits of uric acid crystals.

Gout

65

When urine does not have the correct balance of fluid and a combination of minerals and acids.

Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)

66

In the vertebrate kidney, the portion of a nephron that helps refine filtrate and empties it into a collecting duct.

Distal tubule

67

The location in the kidney where processed filtrate, called urine, is collected from the renal tubules.

Collecting ducts

68

One of the tiny blood vessels that form a network surrounding the proximal and distal tubules in the kidney.

Peritubular capillary

69

The capillary system in the kidney that serves the Loop of Henle.

Vasa recta

70

A duct leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder.

Ureter

71

The pouch where urine is stored prior to elimination.

Urinary bladder

72

A tube that releases urine from the mammalian body near the vagina in females and through the penis in males; also serves in males as the exit tube for the reproductive system.

Urethra

73

Two solutes contribute to the osmolarity of the interstitial fluid:

NaCl and urea

74

Flatworms have __________, branching internal tubules.

Protonephridia

75

Annelids have __________, which collect coelomic fluid from the adjacent anterior segment.

Metanephridia

76

Insects have __________ __________, outpocketings of digestive tract that remove nitrogenous wastes.

Malpighian tubules