Flashcards in Lecture 22-Excretory System Deck (77):
The average human body is composed of _____% water.
The average human lungs are composed of _____% water.
The average human skin is composed of _____% water.
The average human blood is composed of _____% water.
The average human brain is composed of _____% water.
The average human muscle is composed of _____% water.
The average human bones are composed of _____% water.
Maintaining internal water balance, or __________, is extremely important.
__________ is a special type of diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
In osmosis, water moves from an area of __________ to __________ free water concentration.
Higher to lower
In osmosis, water moves from an area of __________ to __________ solute concentration.
Lower to higher
Osmosis occurs whenever two solutions separated by the membrane differ in __________.
Total solute concentration expressed as morality (milliOsmoles/L).
Water flows by osmosis from a __________ solution to a __________ one.
Hypoosmotic: __________ solute concentration, __________ free water concentration.
Hyperosmotic: __________ solute concentration, __________ free water concentration.
__________ __________ must be removed.
Nitrogenous wastes are produced in the form of __________, which is very toxic.
Ammonia needs to be __________ or __________ to less toxic ones.
Nitrogenous wastes must be __________ _____ __________ to be excreted from the body.
Dissolved in water
The removal of metabolic wastes has a large impact on an animal's:
The three different types of nitrogenous wastes are:
Ammonia, urea, and uric acid
Very low toxicity, conversion from ammonia costs energy.
Highly toxic, highly soluble, easily lost by diffusion.
Nontoxic, does not dissolve in water, energetically very expensive.
Found in fish.
Found in mammals.
Found in birds.
__________ is the process that removes metabolic waste from the body through osmoregulation.
Excretion is the process that removes metabolic waste from the body through __________.
Excretion is different from __________.
The 4 main stages of excretion are:
Filtration-----> Reabsorption -----> Secretion -----> Excretion
Water and small solute from blood to excretory tubule.
Processed filtrate released as urine.
Nonessential solutes and wastes added to excretory tube.
Valuable solutes (glucose, salt, vitamins, hormones, animo acids) and water back to blood.
What in the excretory ruble makes filtering possible?
Selectively permeable membrane
The excretory system is an efficient __________ __________.
The glomerulus is the site for:
Glomerular capillaries and epithelial tissues in the Bowman's capsule are permeable through these, but not blood cells and large molecules.
Water and small solutes
__________ __________ contains water, salts, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, nitrogenous wastes, etc.
Specialized regions of a nephron are the sites for __________ and __________.
What is the direction of filtrate flow?
Bowman's capsule -----> proximal tubule -----> Loop of Henle -----> distal tubule -----> collecting duct -----> urine
In the Loop of Henle, the descending limb is permeable to __________ but not to __________.
In the Loop of Henle, the ascending limb is permeable to __________ but not to __________.
In the Loop of Henle, the descending limb is permeable to water but not to solutes, but the ascending limb is permeable to solutes and not to water. This is very important in establishing __________ ___________ inside the kidneys.
Reabsorption of ions, water, nutrients; secretion of H+ and ammonia.
Reabsorption of water.
Descending limb of the Loop of Henle
Reabsorption of salt.
Ascending limb of the Loop of Henle
In the reabsorption of salt, salt diffuses out at the __________ __________.
In the reabsorption of salt, active transport of salt happens at the __________ __________.
Reabsorption of salt, water, and bicarbonate; secretion of K+ and H+.
Reabsorption of salt, water, and urea.
The kidneys __________ __________ by maintaining osmolarity gradient.
__________ and __________ contribute to the osmolarity gradient.
NaCl and urea
Countercurrent system that expends energy to create concentration gradient.
Countercurrent multiplier system
The kidney has one of the highest __________ __________ of any organ.
_____ L of blood flows through a pair of kidneys each day.
Nephrons process _____ L if initial filtrates.
_____% of water, sugar, amino acids, vitamins, and nutrients are reabsorbed in blood.
_____ L of urine is produced each day.
Some foods we take in are __________ and can have effects on kidney function (ex: alcohol and caffeine).
Inhibits ADH (antidiuretic hormone) secretion.
Inhibits reabsorption of Na+, increases glomerular filtration rate.
A painful inflammation of the joints caused by deposits of uric acid crystals.
When urine does not have the correct balance of fluid and a combination of minerals and acids.
Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)
In the vertebrate kidney, the portion of a nephron that helps refine filtrate and empties it into a collecting duct.
The location in the kidney where processed filtrate, called urine, is collected from the renal tubules.
One of the tiny blood vessels that form a network surrounding the proximal and distal tubules in the kidney.
The capillary system in the kidney that serves the Loop of Henle.
A duct leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
The pouch where urine is stored prior to elimination.
A tube that releases urine from the mammalian body near the vagina in females and through the penis in males; also serves in males as the exit tube for the reproductive system.
Two solutes contribute to the osmolarity of the interstitial fluid:
NaCl and urea
Flatworms have __________, branching internal tubules.
Annelids have __________, which collect coelomic fluid from the adjacent anterior segment.