Lecture 17-Chordates II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 17-Chordates II Deck (42):
1

Fossil record shows clean progression from __________ to __________.

Lobe-finned lungfish, tetrapods

2

__________ is a fossil intermediate between lobe-finned fish and tetrapods.

Tiktaalik

3

The Tiktaalik has many fish-like traits, such as:

Fins, scales, and primitive jaws

4

The Tiktaalik has tetrapod-like traits, such as:

Fins with wrist, neck, expanded ribs, and flat head

5

Digit number was __________ __________ in early tetrapodomoph legs.

Highly variable

6

Successful tetrapods have _____ digits.

5

7

Once tetrapods successfully invade land, two major lineages diverge, one leading to the __________ , the other leading to the __________ and __________.

Amphibians, reptiles & mammals

8

Amphibians breath through __________ lungs.

Primitive

9

In amphibians, juveniles and some adults have __________.

Gills

10

Amphibians are capable of __________ respiration (i.e. breath through skin).

Cutaneous

11

Amphibians fertilize __________.

Externally

12

In amphibians, reproduction is tied to __________.

Water

13

Amphibians are closely tied to water for reproduction. This limits their __________ range.

Terrestrial

14

In an amniotic egg, the __________ protects and provides shock absorption.

Amnion

15

In an amniotic egg, the __________ __________ is a stockpile of nutrients for the embryo.

Yolk sac

16

In an amniotic egg, the __________ is the disposal sac for metabolic waste.

Allantois

17

In an amniotic egg, the __________ allows for respiration across shell.

Chorion

18

Amniotic egg allows for __________ independence during reproduction.

Water

19

Water independent reproduction leads to __________ fertilization.

Internal

20

__________ are rearranged for carrying weight out of water.

Legs

21

Examples of __________ reptiles and turtles, crocodilians, birds, tuatara, and squamates.

Extant

22

Examples of __________ reptiles are pterosaurs, dinosaurs, plesiosaurs, and ichthyosaurs.

Extinct

23

Independent evolution of flight.

Pterosaurs

24

Terrestrial lineage of large reptiles; likely endothermic; some feathered; give rise to birds.

Dinosaurs

25

The 3 types of mammals are:

Monotremes, Marsupials, and Eutherians

26

Monotremes lay __________ and produce __________.

Eggs, milk

27

Monotremes do NOT have __________.

Nipples

28

Examples of __________ are the platypus and echidna.

Monotremes

29

__________ have rudimentary placentas.

Marsupials

30

Do marsupials have nipples?

Yes

31

Marsupials have __________ for fetal development.

Pouches

32

Examples of __________ are kangaroos and opossum.

Marsupials

33

__________ have complex placentas.

Eutherians

34

Examples of __________ are rodents, whales, bats, primates, and elephants.

Eutherians

35

3 derived traits possessed by primates are:

Opposable thumbs, fingerprints, and large brains

36

The 2 groups of primates are:

Prosimians and Anthropoids

37

2 types of Anthropoids are:

Monkeys and apes

38

The 5 genera of apes are:

Gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans

39

The genus Homo are __________, or having two feet.

Bipedal

40

The genus Homo have __________ __________ jaws.

Reduced lower

41

Many species of Homo __________.

Coexist

42

In the genus Homo, we see enlarged __________ __________.

Cranial cavities