Flashcards in Lecture 17-Chordates II Deck (42):
Fossil record shows clean progression from __________ to __________.
Lobe-finned lungfish, tetrapods
__________ is a fossil intermediate between lobe-finned fish and tetrapods.
The Tiktaalik has many fish-like traits, such as:
Fins, scales, and primitive jaws
The Tiktaalik has tetrapod-like traits, such as:
Fins with wrist, neck, expanded ribs, and flat head
Digit number was __________ __________ in early tetrapodomoph legs.
Successful tetrapods have _____ digits.
Once tetrapods successfully invade land, two major lineages diverge, one leading to the __________ , the other leading to the __________ and __________.
Amphibians, reptiles & mammals
Amphibians breath through __________ lungs.
In amphibians, juveniles and some adults have __________.
Amphibians are capable of __________ respiration (i.e. breath through skin).
Amphibians fertilize __________.
In amphibians, reproduction is tied to __________.
Amphibians are closely tied to water for reproduction. This limits their __________ range.
In an amniotic egg, the __________ protects and provides shock absorption.
In an amniotic egg, the __________ __________ is a stockpile of nutrients for the embryo.
In an amniotic egg, the __________ is the disposal sac for metabolic waste.
In an amniotic egg, the __________ allows for respiration across shell.
Amniotic egg allows for __________ independence during reproduction.
Water independent reproduction leads to __________ fertilization.
__________ are rearranged for carrying weight out of water.
Examples of __________ reptiles and turtles, crocodilians, birds, tuatara, and squamates.
Examples of __________ reptiles are pterosaurs, dinosaurs, plesiosaurs, and ichthyosaurs.
Independent evolution of flight.
Terrestrial lineage of large reptiles; likely endothermic; some feathered; give rise to birds.
The 3 types of mammals are:
Monotremes, Marsupials, and Eutherians
Monotremes lay __________ and produce __________.
Monotremes do NOT have __________.
Examples of __________ are the platypus and echidna.
__________ have rudimentary placentas.
Do marsupials have nipples?
Marsupials have __________ for fetal development.
Examples of __________ are kangaroos and opossum.
__________ have complex placentas.
Examples of __________ are rodents, whales, bats, primates, and elephants.
3 derived traits possessed by primates are:
Opposable thumbs, fingerprints, and large brains
The 2 groups of primates are:
Prosimians and Anthropoids
2 types of Anthropoids are:
Monkeys and apes
The 5 genera of apes are:
Gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans
The genus Homo are __________, or having two feet.
The genus Homo have __________ __________ jaws.
Many species of Homo __________.