Lecture 29-Animal Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 29-Animal Behavior Deck (41):
0

Behavior is the sum of responses to what?

External and internal stimuli

1

Behavior is both __________ and __________ activities.

Muscular, non-muscular

2

Study of ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior.

Behavioral ecology

3

Who thought of the four questions in behavioral ecology?

Niko Tinbergen

4

A sequence of unlearned acts directly linked to a simple stimulus; unchangeable; once initiated, usually carried to completion.

Fixed action patterns

5

A change in activity of turning rate in response to a stimulus.

Kinesis

6

An oriented movement toward (positive) or away from (negative) a stimulus.

Taxis

9

Circadian clock, circannual rhythms, lunar cycle.

Biological rhythm

10

A stimulus transmitted from one animal to another.

Signal

11

Transmission and reception of signals.

Communication

12

Typically males generating stimulus that guides the behavior of females.

Courtship

13

What is the Proximate Question on Mechanism?

What stimulus elicits the behavior, and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response?

14

Modification of behavior based on specific experiences.

Learning

15

A loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no new information (getting used to stimuli).

Habituation

16

Formation of a specific stage in life of a long-lasting behavioral response to a particular individual or object (stimuli get stuck for life).

Imprinting

17

A limited developmental phase when certain behaviors can be learned; irreversible.

Sensitive period

18

What is another term for the sensitive period?

Critical period

19

Establishment of a memory that reflects the environment's spatial structure.

Spatial learning

20

The ability to associate one environmental feature with another.

Associative learning

21

2 types of associate learning:

Classical conditioning and operating conditioning

22

Trial and error learning.

Operant conditioning

23

Arbitrary stimulus becomes associated with a particular outcome (dog salivating when it hears a bell ring).

Classical conditioning

24

Examples of operant conditioning:

Blue jay and a toxic caterpillar

25

Process of knowing represented by awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgement.

Cognition

26

Cognition can be established from:

Problem solving and learning from others

27

Both genetic makeup (or __________) and environmental conditions (or __________) contribute to the development of behaviors.

Nature, nurture

28

Young of one species are placed in the care of adults from another species in what kind if study?

Cross-fostering study

29

Studies the behavior of identical twins raised apart.

Twin studies

30

What is the Question of Ontogeny?

How does the animal's experience during growth and development influence the response?

31

The genetic components of behavior evolve through __________ __________ for traits that enhance survival and reproductive success __________ in a population.

Natural selection, fitness

32

Food-obtaining behavior.

Foraging

33

In this model, natural selection should favor a foraging behavior that minimizes the costs of foraging and maximizes the benefits.

Optimal foraging model

34

A form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates.

Sexual selection

35

Sexual selection is made up of:

Female choice and male-male competition

36

An approach to evaluating alternative strategies in situations where the outcome of a particular strategy depends on the strategies used by other individuals.

Game theory

37

Example of game theory:

Side-blotched lizards

38

What is the Ultimate Question on Adaptation?

How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction?

39

Differences in behavior between populations or species can be attributed to:

Different evolutionary history

40

What is the Ultimate Question on Phylogeny?

What is the behavior's evolutionary history?

42

A regular, long-distance change in location.

Migration

47

4 types of taxis?

Phototaxis, chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and phonotaxis