Flashcards in Lecture 29-Animal Behavior Deck (41):
Behavior is the sum of responses to what?
External and internal stimuli
Behavior is both __________ and __________ activities.
Study of ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior.
Who thought of the four questions in behavioral ecology?
A sequence of unlearned acts directly linked to a simple stimulus; unchangeable; once initiated, usually carried to completion.
Fixed action patterns
A change in activity of turning rate in response to a stimulus.
An oriented movement toward (positive) or away from (negative) a stimulus.
Circadian clock, circannual rhythms, lunar cycle.
A stimulus transmitted from one animal to another.
Transmission and reception of signals.
Typically males generating stimulus that guides the behavior of females.
What is the Proximate Question on Mechanism?
What stimulus elicits the behavior, and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response?
Modification of behavior based on specific experiences.
A loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no new information (getting used to stimuli).
Formation of a specific stage in life of a long-lasting behavioral response to a particular individual or object (stimuli get stuck for life).
A limited developmental phase when certain behaviors can be learned; irreversible.
What is another term for the sensitive period?
Establishment of a memory that reflects the environment's spatial structure.
The ability to associate one environmental feature with another.
2 types of associate learning:
Classical conditioning and operating conditioning
Trial and error learning.
Arbitrary stimulus becomes associated with a particular outcome (dog salivating when it hears a bell ring).
Examples of operant conditioning:
Blue jay and a toxic caterpillar
Process of knowing represented by awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgement.
Cognition can be established from:
Problem solving and learning from others
Both genetic makeup (or __________) and environmental conditions (or __________) contribute to the development of behaviors.
Young of one species are placed in the care of adults from another species in what kind if study?
Studies the behavior of identical twins raised apart.
What is the Question of Ontogeny?
How does the animal's experience during growth and development influence the response?
The genetic components of behavior evolve through __________ __________ for traits that enhance survival and reproductive success __________ in a population.
Natural selection, fitness
In this model, natural selection should favor a foraging behavior that minimizes the costs of foraging and maximizes the benefits.
Optimal foraging model
A form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates.
Sexual selection is made up of:
Female choice and male-male competition
An approach to evaluating alternative strategies in situations where the outcome of a particular strategy depends on the strategies used by other individuals.
Example of game theory:
What is the Ultimate Question on Adaptation?
How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction?
Differences in behavior between populations or species can be attributed to:
Different evolutionary history
What is the Ultimate Question on Phylogeny?
What is the behavior's evolutionary history?
A regular, long-distance change in location.