Lecture 11-Plant Diversity I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11-Plant Diversity I Deck (59):
1

Plants are __________ organisms that evolved from semi-aquatic __________.

Terrestrial, algae

2

All land plants derived from __________ __________

Terrestrial algae

3

All plants are: __________, __________, __________, and __________.

Multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic, and cell walls contain cellulose

4

__________ are the closest land plant relative.

Charophyceans

5

__________ often inhabit shallow, ephemeral waters.

Charophyceans

6

Shared characteristic #1 between plants are charophyceans:

Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis

7

Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis (in plants and charophyceans) instead of __________ complexes.

Linear

8

Shared characteristic #2 between plants and charophyceans:

Similar peroxisome enzymes

9

Plants and charophyceans have similar __________ enzymes.

Peroxisome

10

Shared characteristic #3 between plants and charophyceans:

Similar flagellated sperm structure

11

Specialized microtubles:

Phragmoplast

12

Shared characteristic #4 between plants and charophyceans:

Phragmoplast forms during cell division

13

Non-vascular plants dominated for ________.

100 MY

14

Land plant invasion was during the __________ period.

Ordovician

15

The Ordovician period was __________

480 MYA

16

Terrestrial adaptations of plants include the formation of __________ and __________.

Cuticles, Sporopollenin

17

Epidermal polymers that act as waterproofing are called:

Cuticles

18

__________ is a durable polymer that prevents spores/pollen from drying out.

Sporopollenin

19

__________ kept plants from desiccating in an arid environment.

Cuticles

20

Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and buds of shoots. The dividing cells of this enables plants to grow in length.

Apical meristem

21

A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae.

Alternation of generations

22

The 5 unique plant characteristics are:

Apical meristems, alternation of generations, walled spores in sporangia, multicellular gametangia, and multicellular dependent embryos

23

A gamete producing organ

Gametangia

24

The process in which each generation gives rise to the other.

Alternation of generations

25

Multicellular sporangia that produce spores with __________-enriched walls are key terrestrial adaptations of land plants.

Sporopollenin

26

Localized regions of cell division at the tips of roots and shoots:

Apical meristems

27

Shoot apical meristems generate __________ in most plants.

Leaves

28

In bryophytes, the __________ is the dominant life stage.

Gametophyte

29

Bryophytes are __________, _________ plants.

Non-vascular, seedless

30

Male gametangia.

Antheridia

31

Female gametangia.

Archegonium

32

Non-vascular, seedless plants possess:

Antheridia and archegonium

33

A __________ grows from the archegonium.

Sporophyte

34

Reproduction in non-vascular, seedless plants is __________ dependent.

Water

35

Reproduction in non-vascular, seedless plants is water dependent due to what?

Flagellated sperm

36

Bryophyte taxa is made up of:

Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses

37

Marchanctia =

Liverworts

38

Anthoceros =

Hornworts

39

Polytrichum =

Mosses

40

The fact that the reproduction of non-vascular, seedless plants is dependent on water limits it range to:

Damp environments

41

Non-vascular, seedless plants are __________ in size.

Restrained

42

Water/mineral transport:

Xylem

43

Sugar/organics transport. Transports products of photosynthesis.

Phloem

44

In vascular plants, the __________ is the dominant life stage.

Sporophyte

45

__________ anchor plants, absorb nutrients, and provide support.

Roots

46

Vascular plants have _________ and __________.

Roots and leaves

47

__________ __________ alleviates size constraints.

Vascular tissue

48

Dots of ferns:

Sonus

49

__________ __________ increases surface area for photosynthesis.

Vascular tissue

50

Spine-shaped leaf with a single strand of vascular tissue.

Microphyll

51

Broad leaf with a vascular network.

Megaphyll

52

_________ are evolved by branch webbing.

Megaphylls

53

Modified leaves that bear sporangia.

Sporophylls

54

When a single spore gives rise to both male and female plants, it is:

Homosporous

55

When the megaspore becomes female and the microspore becomes male, the plant is:

Heterosporous

56

Most seedless plants are:

Homosporous

57

All seed plants are:

Heterosporous

58

__________ __________ transformed land and the atmosphere.

Vascular plants

59

__________ __________ facilitated industrial revolution.

Vascular plants