Lecture 32-Community Ecology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 32-Community Ecology Deck (57):
0

A group of populations of different species living close enough to interact.

Community

1

4 types of interspecific interactions:

Interspecific competition, predation, herbivory, and symbiosis

2

Refers to an interaction in which an organism eats part of a plant or alga.

Herbivory

3

Occurs when individuals of different species compete for a resource that limits their growth and survival.

Interspecific competition

4

Occurs when individuals of two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another.

Symbiosis

5

Refers to an interaction between species in which one species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey.

Predation

6

Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to local elimination of the inferior competitor.

Principle of competitive exclusion

7

The sum of a species' use of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment.

Ecological niches

8

__________ __________ leads to competitive exclusion.

Niche overlap

9

Niche overlap leads to:

Competitive exclusion

10

The differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community.

Resource partitioning

11

Indirect evidence of earlier interspecific competition resolved by the evolution of niche differentiation.

"The ghost of competition past"

12

The tendency for characteristics to diverge more in sympatric than in allopatric populations of two species.

Character displacement

13

When populations are sympatric, it means they are:

In the same place

14

Sympatric populations of two closely related species would potentially compete for the same resources, resulting in:

The divergence in morphological features

15

Many organisms have evolved __________ __________ against predation.

Defensive adaptation

16

Camouflage; defense against visual predators.

Cryptic coloration

17

Resembling an object that is a specific feature of its environment.

Mimesis

18

Warning coloration displaying toxic, noxious, or potent chemical defense, specifically against vertebrate predators.

Aposematic coloration

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Aposematic coloration is used specifically against:

Vertebrate predators

20

Eye spots mimicking vertebrate predators.

Startle display

21

Moths use startle display to resemble the eyes of an:

Owl

22

Snakes use startle display to resemble:

Caterpillars

23

Aposematic inedible model and an edible mimic.

Batesian mimicry

24

The model and the mimic are both distasteful and aposematic and benefit from existence.

Mullerian mimicry

25

Plant defense adaptation against herbivores.

Herbivory

26

3 types of herbivory:

Mechanical defense, allelochemicals, and semiochemicals

27

Examples of mechanical defense:

Thorns

28

Examples of allelochemicals:

Toxins (nicotine or caffeine), polymers (lignins and tannins)

29

One organism, the parasite, derives its nourishment from another organism, its host, which is harmed in the process.

Parasitism

30

Interspecific interaction that benefits both species.

Mutualism

31

Interaction between species that benefits one of the species, but neither harms or helps the other.

Commensalism

32

The number and relative abundance of species in a biological community.

Species diversity

33

The number of different species in the community.

Species richness

34

The proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community.

Relative abundance

35

The structure and dynamics of a community depend in the:

Feeding relationships between organisms

36

Different feeding relationships in an ecosystem, which determine the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling.

Trophic structure

37

The transfer of food energy up the trophic levels from its source to carnivores, and to decomposers.

Food chain

38

Interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem.

Food web

39

Typically, how long is each food chain within a food web?

Only a few links long

40

Generally, what limits the length of food chains?

The inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain

41

The most abundant, or have the highest biomass in a community.

Dominant species

42

An example of a dominant species:

Ants

43

Exert strong control on community structure by pivotal ecological roles or niches.

Keystone species

44

An example of a keystone species:

Sea urchins

45

Dramatically alter their physical environments on a large scale.

Ecosystem engineers

46

2 examples of ecosystem engineers:

Beavers and humans

47

An event that changes a community by removing organisms from it or altering resource availability.

Disturbance

48

6 examples of a disturbance:

Storm, fire, flood, drought, overgrazing, and human activity

49

What do disturbances do?

They reduce the dominant species and shift resources

50

__________-__________ species have an opportunity.

Disturbance-adapted

51

The community response after disturbance.

Ecological succession

52

A type of succession that occurs in an area where there were originally no organisms present and where soil has not yet formed.

Primary succession

53

Describe secondary succession.

A type of succession that occurs where an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil or substrate intact.

54

The increase in species richness or biodiversity that occurs from the poles to the tropics.

Latitudinal gradients

55

All other factors being equal, the larger the area, the more species it has.

Area effect

56

What does island species richness depend on?

Size, distance from mainland, immigration, and extinction