Lab 7: Invertebrate Diversity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 7: Invertebrate Diversity Deck (53):
1

Modern __________ organizes life in a hierarchy based on available evidence for shared ancestry.

Systematics

2

The hierarchy is composed of groups that reflect __________ degrees of similarity.

Increasing

3

The hierarchy is composed of these groups:

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

4

A name created by combining both an organism's genus and species group.

Binomial

5

The Kingdom Animalia is also known as the __________.

Metazoa

6

The Kingdom Animalia is a __________ group.

Monophyletic

7

A long history of systematic work based on morphology and developmental traits has been used to build a __________.

Phylogeny

8

More recently, molecular research has been used to build a phylogeny of the __________.

Metazoa

9

A body plan w/o a body cavity.

Acoelomate

10

What are the three germ layers in order?

Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

11

A large phylum composed of segmented worms, where some organs repeat in segments. Includes earthworms, leeches, polychaete worms, and other groups.

Annelida

12

The most diverse phylum, >80% of described living species. All members have jointed appendages, an exoskeleton, and a segmented body. (Examples: spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs,crabs, crayfish, insects, centipedes, millipedes, lobsters, shrimp, etc.)

Arthropoda

13

An organism with a left and right side. There is only one way to cut these organisms in half and obtain two matching halves.

Bilateral symmetry

14

Rod adjacent to the nerve cord.

Notochord

15

A phylum of about 44,000 species, all of which share a notochord and pharyngeal gill slits at some developmental stage. They also share a hollow dorsal never cord and post-anal tail.

Chordata

16

A diploblastic phylum of >9,000 aquatic species, all distinguished by stinging cells. Includes jellyfish, Hydra, anemones, and corals.

Cnidaria

17

Stinging cells.

Cnidocytes

18

A body plan with a membrane-lined body cavity, permitting more organization than the other two body plans.

Coelomate

19

A mode of development of the digestive system during which the mouth forms second (anus first).

Deuterostomia

20

Tissues derived from two embryonic layers: ectoderm and endoderm.

Diploblastic

21

Organisms that molt.

Ecdysozoa

22

A phylum of about 7,000 marine species including starfish, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, and crinoids.

Echinodermata

23

The outer layer of tissue in the gastrula. Gives rise to the skin and nervous system.

Ectoderm

24

Inner layer of tissue in the gastrula. Gives rise to most of the digestive system and multiple internal organs.

Endoderm

25

Organisms with true tissues.

Eumetazoa

26

Tissue organization requires major __________, __________, and __________ processes.

Organizational, genetic, developmental

27

Whorl of tentacles.

Lophophore

28

Ciliated, planktonic.

Trochophore

29

A clade of organisms that share one of two characteristics: either a lophophore mouthpart or a trochophore larval stage.

Lophotrochozoa

30

A layer of germ tissue that fills the space between endoderm and ectoderm.

Mesoderm

31

A diverse phylum of about 93,000 species, all of which have a large cavity used for breathing and excretion and lined with a tissue (mantle), and 2 or 3 nerve cords.

Mollusca

32

Snails and slugs are __________.

Gastropods

33

Clams and muscles are __________.

Bivalves

34

Squid and octopi are __________.

Cephalopods

35

Typically small, narrow worms, >80,000 described species, about 1/5 are parasitic. Very numerous and ubiquitous. Complete gut, longitudinal muscles only.

Nematoda

36

A type of asexual reproduction in which females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs.

Parthenogenesis

37

An acoelomate phylum of about 20,000 species without circulatory and respiratory organs. Many are important human or animal parasites.

Platyhelminthes

38

Informally known as sponges. They lack true tissues; instead, they are composed of several different cell types.

Porifera

39

A mode of development of the digestive system during which the mouth forms first (anus second)

Protostoma

40

A body plan with a body cavity that is not membrane-lined by mesoderm tissue.

Pseudocoelomate

41

The organism can be cut in half in any direction to obtain two matching halves.

Radial symmetry

42

A phylum of tiny aquatic pseudocoelomates with cilia surrounding the mouth that appear to rotate when beating. This phylum comprises almost 2,000 species divided into two main groups with diverse shapes.

Rotifera

43

Having tissues derived from all embryonic layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

Triploblastic

44

Sponge "skeletons" are comprised of __________.

Spicules

45

Structures formed from calcium carbonate or silica.

Spicules

46

All __________ have true tissues derived from embryonic germ layers.

Eumetazoans

47

Two distinct stages exist within the cnidarian life cycle; a __________ and a __________.

Polyp and medusa

48

A sessile life stage in which the organism adheres to the substrate and uses its tentacles to capture prey from the water.

Polyp

49

A motile life stage which moves within the water column.

Medusa

50

The echinoderms are more closely related to __________.

Chordates

51

__________ have a water vascular system.

Echinoderms

52

All mollusks have three main body parts:

The visceral mass, mantle, and foot.

53

Annelida have simple kidneys, called __________.

Metanephridia