Lecture 25-Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 25-Nervous System Deck (57):
0

The nervous system handles:

Information processing

1

Our bodies detect stimuli (sensory input) through __________ __________ in the sensor, and the signal is transmitted through __________.

Sensory neurons, interneurons

2

Analyze and interpret information, and make decisions.

Interneurons

3

After the signal is transmitted through interneurons, and then the resulting signal travels through:

Motor neurons

4

Communicate with effector cells.

Motor neurons

5

Consists of the brain and spinal cord.

Central nervous system (CNS)

6

Consists of all the nerves out of the spinal cord connecting to organs.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

7

Sensory system responds to both __________ and __________ stimuli.

External, internal

8

Examples of external stimuli:

Light, sound, touch, hear, smell, and taste

9

Examples of internal stimuli:

Blood pressure, blood chemical level, muscle tension, blood sugar

10

A neuron consists of:

Cell body, dendrites, and axon

11

Junction where chemical information is passed on.

Synapse

12

Signals travel through the axon via:

Action potential

13

Provides electrical insulation.

Myelin sheath

14

Myelin sheath is produced by:

Glial cells

15

Glial cells:

Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes

16

Gaps in the myelin sheath that result in saltatory conduction.

Nodes of Ranvier

17

Fast signal conduction.

Saltatory conduction

18

All cells have a __________ __________ across plasma membrane.

Membrane potential (voltage)

19

Non transmitting neurons have a __________ potential between -60 and -80 millivolts (they have a __________ charge).

Resting, negative

20

The electrical potential generated by ion differential across a membrane.

Resting potential

21

__________ ions and __________ ions play an essential role in forming resting potential.

Potassium (K+) and Sodium (Na+)

22

At resting potential, the concentration of __________ ions is high inside the neuron cell.

Potassium (K+)

23

At resting potential, the concentration of __________ ions is high outside the neuron cell.

Sodium (Na+)

24

Changes in the membrane potential occur because neurons contain:

Gated ion channels

25

Opening K+ channels. Increases permeability to K+. Net diffusion of K+ out if neuron, inside neuron becomes more negative.

Hyperpolarization

26

Opening Na+ channels. Increases permeability to Na+. Net diffusion of Na out of neuron. Inside neuron becomes more positive.

Depolarization

27

Depolarization reaches the threshold and opens most __________ channels (potassium channels remain closed). Massive influx of __________ into neuron.

Na+

28

Action potentials and conducted in a cascade-like manner along __________.

Axons

29

Depolarization of the action potential spreads to:

Neighboring regions

30

After depolarization of the action potential spreads to neighboring regions, the previous membrane gets:

Repolarized

31

Membrane cannot be re-stimulated: prevents potentials from traveling backwards.

Refractory period

32

Nervous system involving neurons evolved about:

500 MYA

33

The brain provides __________ __________.

Integrative power

34

_________ matter: neuron cells bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons.

Gray

35

__________ matter: bundled axons with myelin sheaths.

White

36

Filled with cerebrospinal fluid (supply nutrients and hormones. Carry away wastes).

Ventricles

37

Convents information to and from the brain. Generates basic patterns of locomotion and produces reflex.

Spinal cord

38

The body's automatic responses to certain stimuli.

Reflexes

39

Examples are reflexes are:

Knee-jerk reflex and the infant grasping reflex

40

The human brain has _____ major parts.

4

41

What are the 4 major parts of the human brain?

Brain stem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and the cerebral cortex

42

The brainstem is the site for:

Homeostasis

43

These make up the brainstem:

Midbrain, and the pons & medulla oblongata

44

Receives and integrates sensory information.

Midbrain

45

__________ and __________ __________ transfer information between PNS and midbrain. Control automatic homeostatic functions (breathing, heart activity, digestion).

Pons, medulla oblongata

46

Important for coordinating motor control.

Cerebellum

47

Relay station for information flow in the body.

Diencephalon

48

3 main parts of the diencephalon:

Thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus

49

Pineal gland, source of melatonin.

Epithalamus

50

Main input center for sensory information going to the cerebrum.

Thalamus

51

Important region for homeostasis, sexual behavior, fight-or-flight response, pleasure.

Hypothalamus

52

Controls muscle contraction, learning, emotion, memory, and perception.

Cerebrum

53

The cerebral cortex is the site of:

Information processing

54

The __________ __________ is divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.

Cerebral cortex

55

The cerebral cortex is divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres and connected by the:

Corpus callosum

56

Neurons are arranged according to the part if the body that:

Generates the sensory input