Lecture 18-Animal Form and Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 18-Animal Form and Function Deck (54):
1

__________ is the study of the biological form.

Anatomy

2

__________ is the study of biological function.

Physiology

3

Anatomy is the study of the biological __________.

Form

4

Physiology is the study of the biological __________.

Function

5

Animal body plans are organized in a __________ manner.

Hierarchical

6

A bone is __________.

Tissue

7

What is the order of the hierarchical organization of an animal's body plan?

Cells -> Tissues -> Organs -> Organ systems

8

Animals constantly exchange materials with:

Their environment

9

All muscle cells are basically:

The same

10

Specialized and complex organ systems are built from a limited set of all __________ and __________ types.

Cell, tissue

11

The four main types of animal tissues are:

Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous

12

__________ breaks down carbohydrates.

Amylase

13

Epithelial tissues cover the:

Outside of the body

14

Epithelial tissues line the __________ and __________.

Organs, cavities

15

Epithelial tissues barrier against __________ __________, __________, and __________ __________.

Mechanical injury, pathogens, fluid loss

16

Epithelial tissues form _________ _________ with the environment.

Active interfaces

17

Examples of this are the skin, intestinal inner lining, specialized glands, and the lining of lung air sacs.

Epithelial tissue

18

__________ tissues hold tissues and organs together.

Connective

19

Connective tissues are build on __________, __________, or __________ foundations.

Liquid, jellylike, or solid

20

Examples of this are bone, blood, adipose (fat) tissue, cartilage, and tendons.

Connective tissues

21

__________ tissues are responsible for body movement.

Muscle

22

Muscle tissues have filaments containing __________ and__________ (important for muscle contraction).

Actin, myosin

23

This type of muscle is striated, voluntary, attached to bones by tendons.

Skeletal muscle

24

This type of muscle is internal organs, involuntary.

Smooth muscle

25

This type of muscle is striated, synchronized heart contractions.

Cardiac muscle

26

This type of muscle allows for intestinal movement.

Smooth muscle

27

__________ tissues receive, process, and transmit information.

Nervous

28

Nervous tissues contain __________.

Neurons

29

Nerve cells

Neurons

30

A concentration of nervous tissues forms a __________.

Brain

31

Help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons.

Glial cells

32

Transmit nerve impulses.

Neurons

33

Example of nervous tissues are:

Glial cells and neurons

34

Tissues, organs, and organ systems must act in __________.

Concert

35

The __________ system transmits hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via blood.

Endocrine

36

The endocrine system transmits hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via __________.

Blood

37

The endocrine system affects __________ _____ __________ regions throughout the body.

One or more

38

The endocrine system is __________ acting, but has __________ lasting effects.

Slow, long

39

An example of a hormone that the endocrine system transmits.

Testosterone

40

The __________ system transmits nerve impulses between specific locations.

Nervous

41

Nerve impulses are received by __________, __________, and __________ cells.

Nervous, muscle, endocrine

42

An example of the __________ system in action is being able to sense temperature instantaneously.

Nervous

43

An animal's internal environment needs to be __________.

Maintained

44

The steady-state physiological condition of the body.

Homeostasis

45

Homeostasis is maintained by this, which helps to return a temperature to either a normal range or a set point.

Negative feedback

46

An example of animal homeostasis is:

Thermoregulation

47

In __________, heat is generated by metabolism.

Endothermy

48

In __________, heat is gained from external sources.

Ectothermy

49

Birds and mammals are:

Endothermic

50

Most invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles are:

Ectothermic

51

Endothermic animals are energetically __________.

Expensive

52

Ectothermic animals are energetically __________.

Inexpensive

53

In __________, animals tolerate greater variations in internal temperatures.

Ectothermy

54

In __________, animals are active at a greater range of external temperatures.

Endothermy