Flashcards in Lecture 18-Animal Form and Function Deck (54):
__________ is the study of the biological form.
__________ is the study of biological function.
Anatomy is the study of the biological __________.
Physiology is the study of the biological __________.
Animal body plans are organized in a __________ manner.
A bone is __________.
What is the order of the hierarchical organization of an animal's body plan?
Cells -> Tissues -> Organs -> Organ systems
Animals constantly exchange materials with:
All muscle cells are basically:
Specialized and complex organ systems are built from a limited set of all __________ and __________ types.
The four main types of animal tissues are:
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
__________ breaks down carbohydrates.
Epithelial tissues cover the:
Outside of the body
Epithelial tissues line the __________ and __________.
Epithelial tissues barrier against __________ __________, __________, and __________ __________.
Mechanical injury, pathogens, fluid loss
Epithelial tissues form _________ _________ with the environment.
Examples of this are the skin, intestinal inner lining, specialized glands, and the lining of lung air sacs.
__________ tissues hold tissues and organs together.
Connective tissues are build on __________, __________, or __________ foundations.
Liquid, jellylike, or solid
Examples of this are bone, blood, adipose (fat) tissue, cartilage, and tendons.
__________ tissues are responsible for body movement.
Muscle tissues have filaments containing __________ and__________ (important for muscle contraction).
This type of muscle is striated, voluntary, attached to bones by tendons.
This type of muscle is internal organs, involuntary.
This type of muscle is striated, synchronized heart contractions.
This type of muscle allows for intestinal movement.
__________ tissues receive, process, and transmit information.
Nervous tissues contain __________.
A concentration of nervous tissues forms a __________.
Help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons.
Transmit nerve impulses.
Example of nervous tissues are:
Glial cells and neurons
Tissues, organs, and organ systems must act in __________.
The __________ system transmits hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via blood.
The endocrine system transmits hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via __________.
The endocrine system affects __________ _____ __________ regions throughout the body.
One or more
The endocrine system is __________ acting, but has __________ lasting effects.
An example of a hormone that the endocrine system transmits.
The __________ system transmits nerve impulses between specific locations.
Nerve impulses are received by __________, __________, and __________ cells.
Nervous, muscle, endocrine
An example of the __________ system in action is being able to sense temperature instantaneously.
An animal's internal environment needs to be __________.
The steady-state physiological condition of the body.
Homeostasis is maintained by this, which helps to return a temperature to either a normal range or a set point.
An example of animal homeostasis is:
In __________, heat is generated by metabolism.
In __________, heat is gained from external sources.
Birds and mammals are:
Most invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles are:
Endothermic animals are energetically __________.
Ectothermic animals are energetically __________.
In __________, animals tolerate greater variations in internal temperatures.