Lecture 27-Plant Anatomy and Growth Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 27-Plant Anatomy and Growth Deck (93):
0

Angiosperms constitute _____% of all plant species.

90%

1

Plants have a __________ organization consisting of organs, tissues, and cells.

Hierarchical

2

A group of cells with a common function, structure, or both.

Tissue

3

Several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions.

Organs

4

3 types of organs in plants.

Roots, stems, and leaves

5

What are the 2 organ systems in a plant?

Root system and shoot system

6

What makes up the root system?

Roots

7

What makes up the shoot system?

Stems and leaves

8

What do roots do?

Provide anchor, absorb minerals and water, and store carbohydrates

9

One main vertical root, giving rise to the lateral roots.

Taproot system

10

Branch roots.

Lateral roots

11

The taproot system is for:

Support

12

Epithelial projections that are short-lived, constantly replaced, thin, tubular extension of root epidermal cells.

Root hairs

13

Root hairs are for:

Absorption

14

Root hairs provide this to maximize water absorption.

A large surface area

15

Some species have evolved storage roots for storing:

Food and water

16

Examples of species that have evolved storage roots for storing food or water:

Carrots, beets, and turnips

17

__________ __________ are roots above ground.

Aerial roots

18

An example of aerial roots are __________ __________. These support and gather nutrients.

Buttress roots

19

An example of aerial roots are __________. These are for oxygen absorption in "water logged" habitats.

Pneumatophores

20

Stems consist if an alternating system of __________ and __________.

Nodes, internodes

21

Stems conduct __________ and __________ and provide __________ __________.

Fluids, gases, structural support

22

Where leaves are attached.

Nodes

23

Segments between nodes.

Internodes

24

Forms lateral shoot (i.e. branch).

Auxiliary bed

25

Causes elongation of young shoot.

Apical bud

26

There are many __________ of stems and also leaves in plants.

Modifications

27

A modification of the stem found in roses is:

Thorns

28

A modification of the stem found in potatoes and used as an underground storage stem.

Tubers

29

A modification of the stem found in ginger and used as an underground stem.

Rhizomes

30

A modification of the stem found in strawberries and used as a horizontal stem.

Stolon

31

The leaf is the main site for __________ and __________ __________.

Photosynthesis, gas exchange

32

A modification of leaves found in aloe plants that store water and food.

Succulent leaf

33

A modification of leaves found in bougainvillea that attract pollinators.

Bract (leaves in these are bright)

34

A modification of leaves found in cacti that are used for protection.

Spines

35

There are _____ tissue system in each plant organ.

3

36

The __________ __________ is a functional unit connecting all of the plant's organs.

Tissue system

37

What are the 3 tissue systems in each plant organ?

Dermal, vascular, and ground

38

Outer protective covering.

Dermal tissue system

39

In nonwoody plants and young plants, the outer protective covering (dermal) is the:

Epidermis

40

In leaves and stems the outer protective covering (dermal) is the:

Cuticle

41

In woody plants the outer protective covering (dermal) is the:

Periderm

42

In these, the outer protective covering (dermal) is the epidermis.

Nonwoody plants and young plants

43

In these, the outer protective covering (dermal) is the cuticle.

Leaves and stems

44

In these, the outer protective covering (dermal) is the periderm.

Woody plants

45

A waxy coating that prevents water loss.

Cuticle

46

Protective tissue that replaces the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots.

Periderm

47

A layer of tightly packed cells.

Epidermis

48

Long-distance transport of materials between roots and shoots.

Vascular tissue system

49

What are the 3 components of the vascular tissue system?

Xylem, phloem, and stele

50

Conducts water and minerals upwards from roots into the shoots.

Xylem

51

Transports sugars from where they are made to where they are needed.

Phloem

52

Collective term for vascular tissue of a root or stem (arrangement varies).

Stele

53

Includes specialized cells for storage, photosynthesis, and support.

Ground tissue system

54

Internal to vascular tissue.

Pith

55

External to vascular tissue.

Cortex

56

Leaves, stems, and roots contain _____ tissue systems.

3 (Dermal, vascular, and ground)

57

The dermal tissue system of the leaf contains:

Guard cells. Upper and lower epidermis, and epidermal cells

58

The vascular tissue system of the leaf contains:

Xylem, phloem, and a vein

59

The ground tissue system of the leaf contains:

Bundle sheath cells, and palisade & spongy mesophyll

60

The dermal tissue system of the stem contains:

Epidermis

61

The vascular tissue system of the stem contains:

Xylem, phloem, sclerenchyma (fiber cells), and vascular bundle

62

Fiber cells

Schlerenchyma

63

The ground tissue system of the stem contains:

Cortex, pith, and the ground tissue connecting the pith to the cortex

64

The dermal tissue system of the roots contains:

Epidermis

65

The vascular tissue system of the roots contains:

Xylem, phloem, vascular cylinder, pericycle, and a core of parenchyma cells

66

The ground tissue system of the roots contains:

Cortex and endodermis

67

Plants undergo __________ growth.

Indeterminate

68

Plants have perpetually embryonic tissues called:

Meristems

69

Primary growth =

Length

70

Secondary growth =

Girth

71

Apical meristems have __________ growth.

Primary

72

Lateral meristems have __________ growth.

Secondary

73

Vascular cambium and cork cambium

Lateral meristems

74

Tips of roots/shoots, axiliary buds of shoots.

Apical meristems

75

Primary growth of roots occurs behind the tip in _____ overlapping zones of cells.

3

76

What are the 3 overlapping zones of cells?

Zones of cell division, elongation, and differentiation

77

Protects apical meristem; secretes a polysaccharide slime that lubricates soil.

Root cap

78

Root apical meristem and its derivatives.

Zone of cell division.

79

Where cells become distinct cell types.

Zone of differentiation

80

Where most of the growth occurs as root cells get longer.

Zone of elongation

81

Primary growth of shoots occurs at:

Apical meristems

82

Shoot apical meristem is a _____-shaped mass of dividing cells at the shoot tip.

Dome

83

Leaves develop from:

Leaf primordia

84

Shoot elongation is due to:

Lengthening of internode cells below the shoot tip

85

Secondary growth consists of the tissue produced by the:

Vascular cambium and cork cambium

86

What does vascular cambium do?

Adds secondary xylem and phloem

87

Vascular cambium adds secondary xylem (__________) and phloem (__________).

Interior, exterior

88

What does cork cambium do?

Produces a tough, thick covering

89

As a tree ages, the older layers become:

Non-functional

90

Older layers of secondary xylem (non-functional)

Heartwood

91

Newer layer if secondary xylem.

Sapwood

92

Older secondary phloem is sloughed off as:

Size increases