Flashcards in Lecture 27-Plant Anatomy and Growth Deck (93):
Angiosperms constitute _____% of all plant species.
Plants have a __________ organization consisting of organs, tissues, and cells.
A group of cells with a common function, structure, or both.
Several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions.
3 types of organs in plants.
Roots, stems, and leaves
What are the 2 organ systems in a plant?
Root system and shoot system
What makes up the root system?
What makes up the shoot system?
Stems and leaves
What do roots do?
Provide anchor, absorb minerals and water, and store carbohydrates
One main vertical root, giving rise to the lateral roots.
The taproot system is for:
Epithelial projections that are short-lived, constantly replaced, thin, tubular extension of root epidermal cells.
Root hairs are for:
Root hairs provide this to maximize water absorption.
A large surface area
Some species have evolved storage roots for storing:
Food and water
Examples of species that have evolved storage roots for storing food or water:
Carrots, beets, and turnips
__________ __________ are roots above ground.
An example of aerial roots are __________ __________. These support and gather nutrients.
An example of aerial roots are __________. These are for oxygen absorption in "water logged" habitats.
Stems consist if an alternating system of __________ and __________.
Stems conduct __________ and __________ and provide __________ __________.
Fluids, gases, structural support
Where leaves are attached.
Segments between nodes.
Forms lateral shoot (i.e. branch).
Causes elongation of young shoot.
There are many __________ of stems and also leaves in plants.
A modification of the stem found in roses is:
A modification of the stem found in potatoes and used as an underground storage stem.
A modification of the stem found in ginger and used as an underground stem.
A modification of the stem found in strawberries and used as a horizontal stem.
The leaf is the main site for __________ and __________ __________.
Photosynthesis, gas exchange
A modification of leaves found in aloe plants that store water and food.
A modification of leaves found in bougainvillea that attract pollinators.
Bract (leaves in these are bright)
A modification of leaves found in cacti that are used for protection.
There are _____ tissue system in each plant organ.
The __________ __________ is a functional unit connecting all of the plant's organs.
What are the 3 tissue systems in each plant organ?
Dermal, vascular, and ground
Outer protective covering.
Dermal tissue system
In nonwoody plants and young plants, the outer protective covering (dermal) is the:
In leaves and stems the outer protective covering (dermal) is the:
In woody plants the outer protective covering (dermal) is the:
In these, the outer protective covering (dermal) is the epidermis.
Nonwoody plants and young plants
In these, the outer protective covering (dermal) is the cuticle.
Leaves and stems
In these, the outer protective covering (dermal) is the periderm.
A waxy coating that prevents water loss.
Protective tissue that replaces the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots.
A layer of tightly packed cells.
Long-distance transport of materials between roots and shoots.
Vascular tissue system
What are the 3 components of the vascular tissue system?
Xylem, phloem, and stele
Conducts water and minerals upwards from roots into the shoots.
Transports sugars from where they are made to where they are needed.
Collective term for vascular tissue of a root or stem (arrangement varies).
Includes specialized cells for storage, photosynthesis, and support.
Ground tissue system
Internal to vascular tissue.
External to vascular tissue.
Leaves, stems, and roots contain _____ tissue systems.
3 (Dermal, vascular, and ground)
The dermal tissue system of the leaf contains:
Guard cells. Upper and lower epidermis, and epidermal cells
The vascular tissue system of the leaf contains:
Xylem, phloem, and a vein
The ground tissue system of the leaf contains:
Bundle sheath cells, and palisade & spongy mesophyll
The dermal tissue system of the stem contains:
The vascular tissue system of the stem contains:
Xylem, phloem, sclerenchyma (fiber cells), and vascular bundle
The ground tissue system of the stem contains:
Cortex, pith, and the ground tissue connecting the pith to the cortex
The dermal tissue system of the roots contains:
The vascular tissue system of the roots contains:
Xylem, phloem, vascular cylinder, pericycle, and a core of parenchyma cells
The ground tissue system of the roots contains:
Cortex and endodermis
Plants undergo __________ growth.
Plants have perpetually embryonic tissues called:
Primary growth =
Secondary growth =
Apical meristems have __________ growth.
Lateral meristems have __________ growth.
Vascular cambium and cork cambium
Tips of roots/shoots, axiliary buds of shoots.
Primary growth of roots occurs behind the tip in _____ overlapping zones of cells.
What are the 3 overlapping zones of cells?
Zones of cell division, elongation, and differentiation
Protects apical meristem; secretes a polysaccharide slime that lubricates soil.
Root apical meristem and its derivatives.
Zone of cell division.
Where cells become distinct cell types.
Zone of differentiation
Where most of the growth occurs as root cells get longer.
Zone of elongation
Primary growth of shoots occurs at:
Shoot apical meristem is a _____-shaped mass of dividing cells at the shoot tip.
Leaves develop from:
Shoot elongation is due to:
Lengthening of internode cells below the shoot tip
Secondary growth consists of the tissue produced by the:
Vascular cambium and cork cambium
What does vascular cambium do?
Adds secondary xylem and phloem
Vascular cambium adds secondary xylem (__________) and phloem (__________).
What does cork cambium do?
Produces a tough, thick covering
As a tree ages, the older layers become:
Older layers of secondary xylem (non-functional)
Newer layer if secondary xylem.