Flashcards in Lecture 10-Fungi Deck (77)
Fungi are __________.
Fungi have cell walls made of __________.
Fungi are closely related to __________.
Flagellated single cell ancestors diverged how long ago?
__________ are absorptive heterotrophs.
Absorptive heterotrophs secrete __________.
Fungi exhibit many different lifestyles, such as:
Decomposers, parasitic, mutualistic
Fungi are _____ celled and __________.
An example of a single celled fungi is __________.
Yeasts reproduce via __________.
__________ digest food outside the body.
__________ is the biggest organism in the world.
Two categories of hyphae are:
Septate and Coenocytic
This category of hyphae are fungal cells separated by porous septum. Pores allow exchange of small molecules. (E.g. Ribosomes, mitochondria, nuclei).
This category of hyphae lacks septa and has continuous cytoplasmic mass.
Multicellular fungi that is a mass of hyphae. It's the main body of fungi and persists mostly underground.
Multicellular fungi that is specialized hyphae that form symbiosis with: host and exchanges or extracts nutrients.
A host with exchanges is a __________ relationship.
Type of relationship where one organism extracts nutrients from another.
Mutualistic haustoria associated with plant roots; improves water and nutrient uptake.
__________ facilitated plant movement on to land.
Parasitic haustoria associated with nematodes.
Fungi produce spores through __________ or __________ life cycles.
Sexual or asexual
In the __________ phase of fungal reproduction, haploid mycelium produces haploid spores, which may be contained in a sporangium.
Step 1 in the sexual phase of fungal reproduction: haploid mycelium produce __________.
__________ signal for potential partners.
Step 2 in the sexual phase of fungal reproduction: mycelia exhibit movement towards a __________ __________ of different 'mating types' (similar to different sexes).
Step 3 in the sexual phase of fungal reproduction: __________ __________.
Fusion of cytoplasm (heterokaryotic stage).
Fusion of haploid nuclei (becomes diploid).
Many species form unique spore producing structures between __________ and __________.
The 6 fungal phyla are:
Microsporidia, Chytridomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota
__________ are intracellular/unicellular parasites of animals and protists.
Polar tubes are associated with __________.
Structure to gain entrance into a host.
Animal parasite causing chronic/debilitating diseases.
Considered aquatic fungi.
__________ have flagellated spores.
Flagellated spores are called __________.
In this fungal phyla, gametes (spores) are contained in the sporangium.
__________ fungus is the leading suspect in the decline of amphibians.
The sexual phase in the __________ phyla produces zygosporangium.
__________ can persist for months in harsh environments.
Considered "shotgun" fungus.
They make your food go bad.
Common fruit and bread molds.
This fungal phyla produces mutualistic mycorrhizae.
____% of land plants have mycorrhizae.
Earliest land plant fossils have __________.
__________ facilitated plant land invasion.
This fungal phyla is considered cup fungi.
The sexual phase of this fungal phyla produces sack like ascocarp.
Ascomycota are found in groups of ________.
__________ are considered a gourmet delicacy (truffles).
This fungal phyla is considered club fungi; mushrooms.
This fungal phyla has gills lined with spores.
__________ are otherwise known as mushrooms.
Mushrooms are found in groups of _______.
Certain types of __________ are delicious and can make you "happy".
Fungi decompose __________ into __________ compounds.
__________ are recyclers.
Fungi are only decomposers of __________.
__________ are important in bioremediation.
Fungi may form __________ relationships with plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and animals.
Fungi that live inside leaves or other plant parts without causing harm are __________.
__________ provide protection and tolerance within plants.
Leaf cutter ants farm fungi to break down __________ __________.
__________ help convert rocks to soil.
__________ grow on rocks and trees.
Algae or cyanobacteria generally occupy an inner layer below the __________ surface.
_____% of fungi are plant pathogens.
Fungal infections in humans are termed __________.
Examples of __________ are ringworm and athlete's foot.
__________ gives us citric acid for cola.