Lecture 10-Fungi Flashcards Preview

Biology 2 > Lecture 10-Fungi > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 10-Fungi Deck (77):
1

Fungi are __________.

Eukaryotes

2

Fungi have cell walls made of __________.

Chitin

3

Fungi are closely related to __________.

Animals

4

Flagellated single cell ancestors diverged how long ago?

1 BYA

5

__________ are absorptive heterotrophs.

Fungi

6

Absorptive heterotrophs secrete __________.

Exoenzymes

7

Fungi exhibit many different lifestyles, such as:

Decomposers, parasitic, mutualistic

8

Fungi are _____ celled and __________.

Single-celled, multicellular

9

An example of a single celled fungi is __________.

Yeast

10

Yeasts reproduce via __________.

Asexual budding

11

__________ digest food outside the body.

Exoenzymes

12

__________ is the biggest organism in the world.

Fungus

13

Filamentous cells:

Hyphae

14

Two categories of hyphae are:

Septate and Coenocytic

15

This category of hyphae are fungal cells separated by porous septum. Pores allow exchange of small molecules. (E.g. Ribosomes, mitochondria, nuclei).

Septate

16

This category of hyphae lacks septa and has continuous cytoplasmic mass.

Coenocytic

17

Multicellular fungi that is a mass of hyphae. It's the main body of fungi and persists mostly underground.

Mycelium

18

Multicellular fungi that is specialized hyphae that form symbiosis with: host and exchanges or extracts nutrients.

Haustoria

19

A host with exchanges is a __________ relationship.

Mutualistic

20

Type of relationship where one organism extracts nutrients from another.

Parasitic

21

Mutualistic haustoria associated with plant roots; improves water and nutrient uptake.

Mycorrhizae

22

__________ facilitated plant movement on to land.

Mycorrhizae

23

Parasitic haustoria associated with nematodes.

Fungus trap

24

Collective hyphae

Mycelium

25

Fungi produce spores through __________ or __________ life cycles.

Sexual or asexual

26

In the __________ phase of fungal reproduction, haploid mycelium produces haploid spores, which may be contained in a sporangium.

Asexual

27

Step 1 in the sexual phase of fungal reproduction: haploid mycelium produce __________.

Pheromones

28

__________ signal for potential partners.

Pheromones

29

Step 2 in the sexual phase of fungal reproduction: mycelia exhibit movement towards a __________ __________ of different 'mating types' (similar to different sexes).

Pheromone source

30

Step 3 in the sexual phase of fungal reproduction: __________ __________.

Mycelia join

31

Fusion of cytoplasm (heterokaryotic stage).

Plasmogamy

32

Fusion of haploid nuclei (becomes diploid).

Karyogamy

33

Many species form unique spore producing structures between __________ and __________.

Plasogamy, Karyogamy

34

The 6 fungal phyla are:

Microsporidia, Chytridomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota

35

__________ are intracellular/unicellular parasites of animals and protists.

Microsporidia

36

Polar tubes are associated with __________.

Microsporidia

37

Structure to gain entrance into a host.

Polar tubes

38

Animal parasite causing chronic/debilitating diseases.

Microsporidia

39

Considered aquatic fungi.

Chytridomycota

40

__________ have flagellated spores.

Chytridomycota

41

Flagellated spores are called __________.

Zoospores

42

In this fungal phyla, gametes (spores) are contained in the sporangium.

Chytridomycota

43

__________ fungus is the leading suspect in the decline of amphibians.

Chytrid

44

The sexual phase in the __________ phyla produces zygosporangium.

Zygomycota

45

__________ can persist for months in harsh environments.

Zygosporangium

46

Considered "shotgun" fungus.

Zygomycota

47

They make your food go bad.

Zygomycota

48

Common fruit and bread molds.

Zygomycota

49

This fungal phyla produces mutualistic mycorrhizae.

Glomeromycota

50

____% of land plants have mycorrhizae.

90%

51

Earliest land plant fossils have __________.

Mycorrhizae

52

__________ facilitated plant land invasion.

Mycorrhizae

53

This fungal phyla is considered cup fungi.

Ascomycota

54

The sexual phase of this fungal phyla produces sack like ascocarp.

Ascomycota

55

Ascomycota are found in groups of ________.

8

56

__________ are considered a gourmet delicacy (truffles).

Ascomycota

57

This fungal phyla is considered club fungi; mushrooms.

Basidiomycota

58

This fungal phyla has gills lined with spores.

Basidiomycota

59

__________ are otherwise known as mushrooms.

Basidiocarps

60

Mushrooms are found in groups of _______.

4

61

Certain types of __________ are delicious and can make you "happy".

Basidiomycota

62

Fungi decompose __________ into __________ compounds.

Organic, Inorganic

63

__________ are recyclers.

Fungi

64

Fungi are only decomposers of __________.

Lignin

65

__________ are important in bioremediation.

Fungi

66

Fungi may form __________ relationships with plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and animals.

Mutualistic

67

Fungi that live inside leaves or other plant parts without causing harm are __________.

Endophytes

68

__________ provide protection and tolerance within plants.

Endophytes

69

Leaf cutter ants farm fungi to break down __________ __________.

Plant cellulose

70

__________ help convert rocks to soil.

Lichens

71

__________ grow on rocks and trees.

Lichens

72

Algae or cyanobacteria generally occupy an inner layer below the __________ surface.

Lichen

73

_____% of fungi are plant pathogens.

30%

74

Fungal infections in humans are termed __________.

Mycosis

75

Examples of __________ are ringworm and athlete's foot.

Mycosis

76

__________ gives us citric acid for cola.

Aspergillus

77

__________ can produce bleu cheese, beer, wine, etc.

Fungi