Flashcards in Lecture 19-Digestive System Deck (51):
An animal's diet must supply:
Chemical fuel for cellular respiration, organic building blocks, and essential nutrients
The fact that an animals diet must provide chemical fuel for cellular respiration is fundamentally important because:
All cells need fuel
Carbon-based macromolecules are necessary for __________ and __________.
Development and maintenance
Examples of organic building blocks include:
Carbohydrates, fat, protein, and nucleic acid
__________ __________ are required materials that cannot be synthesized.
Animals need all _____ amino acids, but only _____ can be synthesized by the human body.
Animals need all 20 __________ __________, but only 10 can be synthesized by the body.
The amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body must be obtained from food in __________ forms.
The essential nutrients are:
Amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals
The only two known fatty acids for humans are:
Alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid
__________ __________ are organic molecules required in small amounts.
There are _____ essential vitamins that are essential to humans.
What are the essential minerals?
Calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), sulfur (S), potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), sodium (Na), and magnesium (Mg)
Animals have diverse __________ requirements.
__________ eat plants or algae.
__________ eat other animals.
__________ eat both plants/algae and other animals.
An example of a herbivore is a:
An example of a carnivore is a:
An example of an omnivore is a:
__________ reflects diverse dietary requirements in animals.
Herbivores have a longer __________ than carnivores.
The caecum in the herbivore is __________ shaped.
From the __________ __________, the animal digestive system evolved from a single opening to two openings.
Early animals such as __________ have only one opening in the digestive system.
Early animals such as Cnidarians have only one opening in the digestive system. This is called the:
Animals that belong to __________, __________, and __________ have two openings in the digestive system.
Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa, and Ecdysozoa
Animals that belong to Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa, and Ecdysozoa have two openings in the digestive system. This is called the:
Complete digestive tractor the alimentary canal
The four main stages of food processing are:
Ingestion -> Digestion -> Absorption -> Elimination
Where ingestion and the initial steps of digestion occur. Also referred to as the oral cavity.
Glands associated with the oral cavity that secrete substances that lubricate food and begin the process of chemical digestion.
A muscular tube that conducts food, by peristalsis, from the pharynx to the stomach.
An organ of the digestive system that stores food and performs preliminary steps of digestion.
A large internal organ in vertebrates that performs diverse functions, such as producing bile, maintaining blood glucose levels, and detoxifying poisonous chemicals in the blood.
An organ that stores bike and releases it as needed into the small intestine.
The site for absorption. No digestion, recovers water, absorbs vitamins, and solidifies digestive waste.
The terminal portion of the large intestine, where the fences are stored prior to elimination.
A gland with exocrine and endocrine tissues. The exocrine portico functions in digestion, secreting enzymes and an alkaline solution into the small intestine via a duct; the ductless endocrine portion functions in homeostasis, secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.
The longest section of the alimentary canal, so named because of its small diameter compared with that of the large intestine; the principal site of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and the absorption of nutrients.
Ring-like valves at junctions between specialized compartments.
Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the alimentary canal. Food travels through the digestive system by this.
Contains amylase and mucin.
Aids in the chemical digestion of starch.
Lubricant in saliva.
Prevents food from entering the trachea.
Enzyme produced in the stomach, breaks down protein, maximum activity at pH 2.0.
A pH of 2.0 is very __________.
Chemical produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks down fat.
Multi-functional; rich in bicarbonate. Contains various enzymes for digesting carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids.