Lecture 19-Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 19-Digestive System Deck (51):
1

An animal's diet must supply:

Chemical fuel for cellular respiration, organic building blocks, and essential nutrients

2

The fact that an animals diet must provide chemical fuel for cellular respiration is fundamentally important because:

All cells need fuel

3

Carbon-based macromolecules are necessary for __________ and __________.

Development and maintenance

4

Examples of organic building blocks include:

Carbohydrates, fat, protein, and nucleic acid

5

__________ __________ are required materials that cannot be synthesized.

Essential nutrients

6

Animals need all _____ amino acids, but only _____ can be synthesized by the human body.

20, 10

7

Animals need all 20 __________ __________, but only 10 can be synthesized by the body.

Amino acids

8

The amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body must be obtained from food in __________ forms.

Prefabricated

9

The essential nutrients are:

Amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals

10

The only two known fatty acids for humans are:

Alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid

11

__________ __________ are organic molecules required in small amounts.

Essential vitamins

12

There are _____ essential vitamins that are essential to humans.

13

13

What are the essential minerals?

Calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), sulfur (S), potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), sodium (Na), and magnesium (Mg)

14

Animals have diverse __________ requirements.

Dietary

15

__________ eat plants or algae.

Herbivores

16

__________ eat other animals.

Carnivores

17

__________ eat both plants/algae and other animals.

Omnivores

18

An example of a herbivore is a:

Koala bear

19

An example of a carnivore is a:

Coyote

20

An example of an omnivore is a:

Human

21

__________ reflects diverse dietary requirements in animals.

Anatomy

22

Herbivores have a longer __________ than carnivores.

Caecum

23

The caecum in the herbivore is __________ shaped.

Spiral

24

From the __________ __________, the animal digestive system evolved from a single opening to two openings.

Phylogenetic perspective

25

Early animals such as __________ have only one opening in the digestive system.

Cnidarians

26

Early animals such as Cnidarians have only one opening in the digestive system. This is called the:

Gastrovascular cavity

27

Animals that belong to __________, __________, and __________ have two openings in the digestive system.

Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa, and Ecdysozoa

28

Animals that belong to Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa, and Ecdysozoa have two openings in the digestive system. This is called the:

Complete digestive tractor the alimentary canal

29

The four main stages of food processing are:

Ingestion -> Digestion -> Absorption -> Elimination

30

Where ingestion and the initial steps of digestion occur. Also referred to as the oral cavity.

Mouth

31

Glands associated with the oral cavity that secrete substances that lubricate food and begin the process of chemical digestion.

Salivary glands

32

A muscular tube that conducts food, by peristalsis, from the pharynx to the stomach.

Esophagus

33

An organ of the digestive system that stores food and performs preliminary steps of digestion.

Stomach

34

A large internal organ in vertebrates that performs diverse functions, such as producing bile, maintaining blood glucose levels, and detoxifying poisonous chemicals in the blood.

Liver

35

An organ that stores bike and releases it as needed into the small intestine.

Gallbladder

36

The site for absorption. No digestion, recovers water, absorbs vitamins, and solidifies digestive waste.

Large intestine

37

The terminal portion of the large intestine, where the fences are stored prior to elimination.

Rectum

38

A gland with exocrine and endocrine tissues. The exocrine portico functions in digestion, secreting enzymes and an alkaline solution into the small intestine via a duct; the ductless endocrine portion functions in homeostasis, secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.

Pancreas

39

The longest section of the alimentary canal, so named because of its small diameter compared with that of the large intestine; the principal site of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and the absorption of nutrients.

Small intestine

40

Ring-like valves at junctions between specialized compartments.

Sphincter

41

Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the alimentary canal. Food travels through the digestive system by this.

Peristalsis

42

Contains amylase and mucin.

Saliva

43

Aids in the chemical digestion of starch.

Amylase

44

Lubricant in saliva.

Mucin

45

Prevents food from entering the trachea.

Epiglottis

46

Enzyme produced in the stomach, breaks down protein, maximum activity at pH 2.0.

Pepsin

47

A pH of 2.0 is very __________.

Acidic

48

Chemical produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks down fat.

Bile

49

Multi-functional; rich in bicarbonate. Contains various enzymes for digesting carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids.

Pancreatic juice

50

Neutralizes acids.

Bicarbonate

51

Finger-like projections in the inner lining of the intestines. Increases surface area, maximizing nutrient absorption.

Villi & microvilli